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Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(2), 53; doi:10.3390/app6020053

Reallocating Charging Loads of Electric Vehicles in Distribution Networks

School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Minho Shin
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [13015 KB, uploaded 16 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, the charging loads of electric vehicles were controlled to avoid their impact on distribution networks. A centralized control algorithm was developed using unbalanced optimal power flow calculations with a time resolution of one minute. The charging loads were optimally reallocated using a central controller based on non-linear programming. Electric vehicles were recharged using the proposed control algorithm considering the network constraints of voltage magnitudes, voltage unbalances, and limitations of the network components (transformers and cables). Simulation results showed that network components at the medium voltage level can tolerate high uptakes of uncontrolled recharged electric vehicles. However, at the low voltage level, network components exceeded their limits with these high uptakes of uncontrolled charging loads. Using the proposed centralized control algorithm, these high uptakes of electric vehicles were accommodated in the network under study without the need of upgrading the network components. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; non-linear programming; unbalanced optimal power flow electric vehicles; non-linear programming; unbalanced optimal power flow
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Al Essa, M.J.M.; Cipcigan, L.M. Reallocating Charging Loads of Electric Vehicles in Distribution Networks. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 53.

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