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Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(2), 31; doi:10.3390/app6020031

Phosphorus Distribution in Soils from Australian Dairy and Beef Rearing Pastoral Systems

1
NanoScience and Sensor Technology Research Group, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
2
School of Applied and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University Australia, Gippsland Campus, Churchill, Victoria 3842, Australia
3
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Urrbrae SA 5064, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mikio Nakamura
Received: 14 November 2015 / Revised: 29 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 25 January 2016
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Abstract

The influence of soil type and management practices on P distribution in soils from Australian dairy and beef rearing pastoral systems has been investigated by chemical measurements and phosphorus-31 (31P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The amount and forms of P within the soil profile varied with soil type, with the acidic red Ferrosols containing relatively high orthophosphate concentrations, averaging 72.2% compared with 66.8% for Dermosols, under similar management conditions. Soil from Sodosol sites which received less fertiliser P addition had the lowest orthophosphate concentration with only 57.6%. In contrast, relatively high proportions of organic P were found in soil samples from unfertilised Sodosol sites. On average, soil from Sodosol sites contained 37.5% organic P (combined monoester P and diester P), while those from Dermosol and Ferrosol sites contained 31.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Of these, the highest monoester phosphate proportions of 44.6% (site M3) and 46.4% (site M4) were found in Sodosol sites with no recent P inputs, but the highest proportion of diester phosphate (5.7%) was found in an unclassified grey sandy loam Dermosol. The higher organic P concentrations in soil from Sodosol sites may be associated with more regular moisture input from both rainfall and boarder-check (flood) irrigation. The highest level of pyrophosphate (8.5%) was also found in a grey/yellow Sodosol. Overall, the results indicate that P speciation in the Australian soils is strongly influenced by soil type, fertiliser P application rate and timing, and moisture variations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phosphorus; 31P NMR spectroscopy; soil; organic P; cultivation; irrigation Phosphorus; 31P NMR spectroscopy; soil; organic P; cultivation; irrigation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Adeloju, S.B.; Webb, B.; Smernik, R. Phosphorus Distribution in Soils from Australian Dairy and Beef Rearing Pastoral Systems. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 31.

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