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Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(3), 485-515; doi:10.3390/app5030485

Fundamentals of Highly Non-Degenerate Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing

1
Departamento de Óptica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, Madrid 28040, Spain
2
Departamento de Física e Astronomia e IFIMUP-IN, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, R. do Campo Alegre 687, Porto 4169-007, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Totaro Imasaka
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015

Abstract

By crossing two intense ultrashort laser pulses with different colors in a transparent medium, like a simple piece of glass, a fan of multicolored broadband light pulses can be simultaneously generated. These newly generated pulses are emitted in several well-defined directions and can cover a broad spectral range, from the infrared to the ultraviolet and beyond. This beautiful phenomenon, first observed and described 15 years ago, is due to highly-nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing (cascaded FWM, or CFWM). Here, we present a review of our work on the generation and measurement of multicolored light pulses based on third-order nonlinearities in transparent solids, from the discovery and first demonstration of highly-nondegenerate CFWM, to the coherent synthesis of single-cycle pulses by superposition of the multicolored light pulses produced by CFWM. We will also present the development and main results of a dedicated 2.5-D nonlinear propagation model, i.e., with propagation occurring along a two-dimensional plane while assuming cylindrically symmetric pump beam profiles, capable of adequately describing noncollinear FWM and CFWM processes. A new method for the generation of femtosecond pulses in the deep-ultraviolet (DUV) based on FWM and CFWM will also be described. These experimental and theoretical results show that highly-nondegenerate third-order nonlinear optical processes are formally well understood and provide broader bandwidths than other nonlinear optical processes for the generation of ultrashort light pulses with wavelengths extending from the near-infrared to the deep-ultraviolet, which have many applications in science and technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing; multicolored femtosecond pulse generation; two-octave spanning spectra; few- and single-cycle coherent pulse synthesis; broadband deep-ultraviolet (DUV) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) femtosecond pulses; femtosecond DUV pulse characterization nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing; multicolored femtosecond pulse generation; two-octave spanning spectra; few- and single-cycle coherent pulse synthesis; broadband deep-ultraviolet (DUV) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) femtosecond pulses; femtosecond DUV pulse characterization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Weigand, R.; Crespo, H.M. Fundamentals of Highly Non-Degenerate Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing. Appl. Sci. 2015, 5, 485-515.

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