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Appl. Sci. 2014, 4(1), 42-54; doi:10.3390/app4010042
Article

Underwater Superoleophobicity Induced by the Thickness of the Thermally Grown Porous Oxide Layer on C84400 Copper Alloy

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Received: 30 September 2013; in revised form: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
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Abstract: The underwater contact angle behavior on oxide layers of varying thicknesses was studied. These oxide layers were grown by thermally oxidizing C84400 copper alloys in N2-0.75 wt.% O2 and N2-5 wt.% O2 gas mixtures at 650 °C. Characterization of the oxidized specimens was effected using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle goniometer. The results from the X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the formation of CuO, ZnO and PbO. The average sizes of the oxide granules were in the range of 70 nm to 750 nm, with the average thickness of the oxide layer increasing with the increase in the weight percent of oxygen in the N2-O2 gas mixtures. The results showed that the oxide layer growth followed the parabolic law. The underwater oil contact angles increased, due to the change in the surface morphology and porosity of the oxide layer. The small sizes and irregular packing of the oxide granules cause hierarchical rough surface layers with pores. The estimated pore sizes, in the range of 88 ± 40 to 280 ± 76, were predominant on the oxide layers of the samples processed in the N2-5 wt.% O2 gas mixture. The presence of these pores caused an increase in the porosities as the thickness of the oxide layers increased. At oxide layer thickness above 25 microns, the measured contact angle exceeded 150° as underwater superoleophobicity was recorded.
Keywords: thermal oxidation; superoleophobicity; oxide layer; porosity thermal oxidation; superoleophobicity; oxide layer; porosity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nyong, A.; Rohatgi, P. Underwater Superoleophobicity Induced by the Thickness of the Thermally Grown Porous Oxide Layer on C84400 Copper Alloy. Appl. Sci. 2014, 4, 42-54.

AMA Style

Nyong A, Rohatgi P. Underwater Superoleophobicity Induced by the Thickness of the Thermally Grown Porous Oxide Layer on C84400 Copper Alloy. Applied Sciences. 2014; 4(1):42-54.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nyong, Aniedi; Rohatgi, Pradeep. 2014. "Underwater Superoleophobicity Induced by the Thickness of the Thermally Grown Porous Oxide Layer on C84400 Copper Alloy." Appl. Sci. 4, no. 1: 42-54.


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