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Environments 2017, 4(1), 18; doi:10.3390/environments4010018

Sonication Effects on Atrazine Dissipation in Vadose Zone Sediment Slurries

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, Lahti 15140, Finland
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Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 19 February 2017
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Abstract

Herbicide atrazine easily leaches to groundwater, where it is persistent. We studied whether sonication accelerates atrazine dissipation (100 mg·L−1) in vadose zone sediment slurries. Sediments were from 11.3 to 14.6 m depths in an atrazine-contaminated groundwater area. The slurries and autoclave-sterilized slurries were sonicated (bath, 43 kHz, 320 W) for 0, 5, 10, 20, or 30 min once/twice a day, and atrazine concentrations were followed. Atrazine concentrations raised in the sterilized slurries sonicated twice a day for 10 min (86.0 ± 7.7 mg·L−1), while they remained low in the slurries (56.6 ± 10.9 mg·L−1) due to microbial degradation. Twice a day sonications for 20–30 min did not enhance microbial atrazine degradation. Chemical dissipation may have occurred in the sterilized slurries sonicated twice a day for 30 min. However, sonication did not decrease atrazine concentrations below those in the non-sonicated slurries (55.1 ± 7.8 mg·L−1) and sterilized slurries (67.1 ± 7.9 mg·L−1). Atrazine concentrations in the sterilized slurries were higher than in the slurries, indicating changes in sediment structure and adsorption due to autoclaving. Sonication parameters needed for releasing atrazine from interactions with particles may be close to those damaging microbial cells. This suggests difficulties in enhancing microbial atrazine degradation by sonication, though chemical degradation can be enhanced. View Full-Text
Keywords: atrazine; pesticide; sonication; autoclaving; dissipation; degradation; subsurface sediment slurry atrazine; pesticide; sonication; autoclaving; dissipation; degradation; subsurface sediment slurry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kerminen, K.; Kontro, M.H. Sonication Effects on Atrazine Dissipation in Vadose Zone Sediment Slurries. Environments 2017, 4, 18.

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