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Environments 2015, 2(2), 200-220; doi:10.3390/environments2020200

Landscape Disturbance from Unconventional and Conventional Oil and Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale Region of Pennsylvania, USA

Geological Survey, Eastern Geographic Science Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, 521 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 2 January 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
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Abstract

The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing) and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1) occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2) was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3) was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4) was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5) occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6) occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7) tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8) had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydraulic fracturing (fracking); natural gas; coal-bed methane; combined impacts; environmental justice; forest fragmentation; landscape disturbance; water quality hydraulic fracturing (fracking); natural gas; coal-bed methane; combined impacts; environmental justice; forest fragmentation; landscape disturbance; water quality
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E. Landscape Disturbance from Unconventional and Conventional Oil and Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale Region of Pennsylvania, USA. Environments 2015, 2, 200-220.

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