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Environments 2015, 2(2), 186-199; doi:10.3390/environments2020186

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 28 March 2015 / Revised: 1 May 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
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Abstract

This study evaluates the levels of aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in tap water samples of forty localities from around the Maltese Islands together with their corresponding service supply reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations obtained indicated that concentrations of the elements were generally below the maximum allowed concentration established by the Maltese legislation. In terms of the Maltese and EU water quality regulations, 17.5% of the localities sampled yielded water that failed the acceptance criteria for a single metal in drinking water. Higher concentrations of some metals were observed in samples obtained at the end of the distribution network, when compared to the concentrations at the source. The observed changes in metal concentrations between the localities’ samples and the corresponding supply reservoirs were significant. The higher metal concentrations obtained in the samples from the localities can be attributed to leaching in the distribution network. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; potable water; Maltese Islands heavy metals; potable water; Maltese Islands
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bugeja, R.; Shoemake, C. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water. Environments 2015, 2, 186-199.

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