Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Behav. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 9 (September 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Psychological Risks in the Professional Activities of Oil and Gas Workers in the Far North of the Russian Federation
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8090084
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The professional activity in shifts in the Arctic contributes to the development of unfavorable functional status and destructive personal qualities of workers, which leads to a decrease in the level of mental health and efficiency of labor activity. The reference to the risk-oriented
[...] Read more.
The professional activity in shifts in the Arctic contributes to the development of unfavorable functional status and destructive personal qualities of workers, which leads to a decrease in the level of mental health and efficiency of labor activity. The reference to the risk-oriented approach is conditioned by the need to predict the professional efficiency of shift personnel. The purpose of this study is to determine the psychological risks of oil and gas workers with a shift work organization in the Arctic. The study involved 70 oil and gas workers. The research methods were used as follows: documentation study, work process monitoring, questionnaire survey, psychophysiological and psychological testing, and statistical analysis methods: descriptive statistics—conjugacy tables with calculation of Pearson’s criterion, two-stage cluster, dispersion, and discriminant analyzes. As a result of this research, it was established that oil and gas workers characterized by different combinations of character accentuations would have different psychological risks, and, consequently, different approaches to their psychological support are needed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Motivational Climate in Youth Football Players
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8090083
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: In recent decades, the psychology of sport has gained special relevance in this field, due to the influence of psychological variables on sports performance and the regularity of sports practice. The aim of this research is to analyse the motivational climate
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: In recent decades, the psychology of sport has gained special relevance in this field, due to the influence of psychological variables on sports performance and the regularity of sports practice. The aim of this research is to analyse the motivational climate of footballers. (2) Methods: This study uses a descriptive cross-sectional design on a sample of 156 adolescent football players, using an ad-hoc questionnaire for the recording of socio-demographic variables and the PMCSQ-2 questionnaire on motivational climate in sport. (3) Results: The results of the present investigation indicate that footballers are more oriented towards task than ego, sportsmen who compete in Honor Division being the those who are more oriented towards ego and those of National Division being more oriented towards task. (4) Conclusions: The main conclusion of this research is those who are the motivational climate is related to the division in which the players compete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle The Happiness, Hardiness, and Humor Styles of Students with a Bachelor’s Degree in Sport Sciences
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8090082
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
PDF Full-text (434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Happiness, psychological hardiness, and humor (“the 3Hs”) are useful ways of assessing resilience to stress in positive psychology. The literature analyzing their confluence regarding sports is scarce. This study aims to analyze the participants’ 3H levels and the relationships between those levels and
[...] Read more.
Happiness, psychological hardiness, and humor (“the 3Hs”) are useful ways of assessing resilience to stress in positive psychology. The literature analyzing their confluence regarding sports is scarce. This study aims to analyze the participants’ 3H levels and the relationships between those levels and specific variables. The Psychological Hardiness Scale (Psikolojik Dayaniklilik Olcegi, PDO), the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form (OHQ-SF), and the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) were used. Students in pedagogical formation training during the 2016–2017 fall semester have participated in the study (N = 211). Significant differences were found regarding the levels of psychological hardiness in relation to gender, type of sport, and years of participation, and, in humor types regarding the variables of gender, age, residence and perceived income. There were significant differences in all instruments regarding gender. Negative relationships were found between the “aggressive humor” and “challenge” and “self-commitment” sub-dimensions of PDO, while the relationships were positive between “self-enhancing humor” and PDO and OHQ-SF, and between “affiliative humor” style and PDO and OHQ-SF. This study enhances the positive socio-psychological account in the literature by incorporating the issues of 3H and provides an understanding of particularities that may help improve the practice of relevant experts and individuals. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Frontal, Parietal, and Cerebellar Regions in Fasting Healthy Adults
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8090081
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that has been investigated in a large number of studies in terms of it is effects on brain function, safety of use, and future implications. The principal aim of this
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that has been investigated in a large number of studies in terms of it is effects on brain function, safety of use, and future implications. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the safety of 1.5-mA tDCS of three brain areas, that is, frontal, partial, and cerebellar cortices, in fasting healthy individuals during the month of Ramadan. (2) Methods: In a single-blinded, sham-controlled study, we assessed the safety of a 20-min tDCS current (1.5 mA, 35 cm2) over the right frontal, parietal, and cerebellar cortex areas after 8 h of fasting in healthy right-handed adult subjects using a standard safety questionnaire. (3) Results: A total of 49 subjects completed the tDCS sessions and safety questionnaire. None of the sessions were stopped due to pain or discomfort during stimulation. Moreover, no subject experienced serious adverse events such as seizures or loss of consciousness. (4) Conclusions: There was no significant difference in the frequency or type of side effects between active and sham stimulation sessions. The tDCS protocol applied in this study was found to be safe in fasting healthy adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle Understanding the Demographic Predictors and Associated Comorbidities in Children Hospitalized with Conduct Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8090080
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: To determine the demographic predictors and comorbidities in hospitalized children with conduct disorder. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2012–2014). All patients were ≤18 years old and cases with a primary diagnosis of conduct disorder (n
[...] Read more.
Objective: To determine the demographic predictors and comorbidities in hospitalized children with conduct disorder. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2012–2014). All patients were ≤18 years old and cases with a primary diagnosis of conduct disorder (n = 32,345), and a comparison group with another psychiatric diagnosis (n = 410,479) were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)diagnosis codes. A logistic regression model was used to generate the odds ratio (OR) between both groups. Results: Children < 11 years old have a five times greater chance of admission for conduct disorder than adolescents (OR = 5.339). African American males are more likely to be admitted for conduct disorder. Children with conduct disorder from low-income families have a 1.5 times higher likelihood of inpatient admission compared to high-income families. These children have an about eleven times higher odds of comorbid psychosis (OR = 11.810) and seven times higher odds of depression (OR = 7.093) compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Conduct disorders are more debilitating for children and families than many providers realize. African American males under 11 years are at the highest risk of inpatient management for conduct disorder. These patients have a higher risk of comorbid psychosis and depression, which may further deteriorate the severity of illness and require acute inpatient care. Full article
Open AccessArticle Measurement of Mood States Following Light Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from the Implicit Association Test
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8090079
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
PDF Full-text (783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the problems of mood measurements during alcohol consumption of alcoholic beverages do not necessarily evoke interpretable physiological responses, explicit reports may be contaminated by various cognitive biases or expectations. The present study examined whether emotional responses induced by the consumption of beverages
[...] Read more.
As the problems of mood measurements during alcohol consumption of alcoholic beverages do not necessarily evoke interpretable physiological responses, explicit reports may be contaminated by various cognitive biases or expectations. The present study examined whether emotional responses induced by the consumption of beverages containing low concentrations of alcohol can be measured using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The IAT can detect the estimates of internal proximity between bipolar target concepts (e.g., cheerfulness and fatigue). Participants (N = 30) received three IAT sessions, followed by drinking a beverage containing 0% (control), 1%, or 3% alcohol by volume, and three IATs (at 0, 30, and 60 min after the time of consumption). We also recorded the explicit responses regarding the extent of drunkenness. The analyses of variance with alcohol concentration and time reveal dissociation between implicit and explicit measures. The IAT scores under the alcohol conditions reflect a more cheerful mood state relative to the baseline test. This effect of enhanced cheerfulness was not observed under the non-alcohol control condition. These results demonstrate that the impact of the consumption of low-alcohol beverages on mood can be measured using the IAT. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Ethical Concerns in Sport: When the Will to Win Exceed the Spirit of Sport
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8090078
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The need to advance and achieve success is deeply ingrained in human evolution. As a species, humans developed instincts that allowed them to survive and transmit their genes along generations. The will to win is an instinct that has been maintained
[...] Read more.
Background: The need to advance and achieve success is deeply ingrained in human evolution. As a species, humans developed instincts that allowed them to survive and transmit their genes along generations. The will to win is an instinct that has been maintained in the species for millions of years. Sport is an activity as old as humans themselves and is subject to rules; Objective: The proposal of this work is to explore some of the most recurrent practices to achieve the athletes’ goals, and the origins and historical use of methods or substances to improve performance and its regulation, as well as to review the impact of new technologies on achieving better results and to make a proposal of what actions should be takenin order to prevent bad practices; Methods: A narrative literature review of ethical sports issues and decision-making was performed in the English language; Results: Practically all behavior with regards to the theme of sports is regulated by ethical codes that must be followed by sportspersons, as well as by everyone involved in the athlete’s healthcare and in the athlete’s administrative, marketing, and business aspects. Notwithstanding this, winning and reaping glory implies a reward far greater than fame and fortune, which can lead to poor ethical practices in athletes, as well as in interested parties who detract from the intrinsic value of the spirit of sports. The will to win could exceed the limits of what is permitted in fair-play, like the use of prohibited methods or substances; Conclusions: In this work, we review some of the bioethical aspects ofsports. Additionally, recommendations are offered for good practices and to prevent falling into poor ethical behavior. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper Mining for Posttraumatic Growth (PTG) in Sexual Minority Women Who Survive Intimate Partner Violence: A Conceptual Perspective
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8090077
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This theoretical paper explores the need to use posttraumatic growth (PTG) as a framework when studying sexual minority women (SMW) who are survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) to examine the relationship between risk factors such as stress, anxiety and alcohol use and
[...] Read more.
This theoretical paper explores the need to use posttraumatic growth (PTG) as a framework when studying sexual minority women (SMW) who are survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) to examine the relationship between risk factors such as stress, anxiety and alcohol use and to understand the role of protective factors through mining for the presence of posttraumatic growth (PTG). Despite a call for continued research in this highly vulnerable population, representative studies of SMW and PTG remain extremely limited. Research that examines the relationship between IPV, behavioral health issues, and posttraumatic growth would provide the opportunity to develop tailored intervention models and opportunities for program development to decrease isolation and increase factors of posttraumatic growth. In particular, the impact of how interpersonal relationships as potential mediators and/or outcomes of posttraumatic growth (PTG) needs to be explored more thoroughly. PTG is a valuable framework for vulnerable populations such as sexual minority women because it focuses on how transformative change may result from traumatic experiences such as surviving IPV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Posttraumatic Growth and Illusory Growth: Theory and Practice)
Back to Top