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Behav. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 29; doi:10.3390/bs6040029

Peripheral Inflammatory Markers Contributing to Comorbidities in Autism

1
Immunology Department, Havana University Medical Science, Havana 11300, Cuba
2
Neurophysiology Department, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Ave 25 # 15805 b/w 158 and 160, Playa, Havana 11300, Cuba
3
Infant Neurology Clinic, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Ave 25 # 15805 b/w 158 and 160, Playa, Havana 11300, Cuba
4
Psychiatry Department, Children Hospital Las Católicas, Calzada del Cerro entre Santa Teresa Y Monasterio, Havana 10200, Cuba
5
Immunology Department, Hospital Clinico Quirúrgico Docente “Joaquin Albarrán”, Havana 10600, Cuba
6
Department of Experimental Model, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Ave 25 # 15805 b/w 158 and 160, Playa, Havana 11300, Cuba
7
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, via S. Maria di Costantinopoli 16, Naples 80138, Italy
8
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90040-060, Brazil
9
Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Immunochemical Department, Technology and Science Division, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Ave 25 # 15805 b/w 158 and 160, Playa, Havana 11300, Cuba
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jodi Robledo
Received: 22 October 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1928 KB, uploaded 14 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

This study evaluates the contribution of peripheral biomarkers to comorbidities and clinical findings in autism. Seventeen autistic children and age-matched typically developing (AMTD), between three to nine years old were evaluated. The diagnostic followed the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DMS-IV) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was applied to classify the severity. Cytokine profile was evaluated in plasma using a sandwich type ELISA. Paraclinical events included electroencephalography (EEG) record. Statistical analysis was done to explore significant differences in cytokine profile between autism and AMTD groups and respect clinical and paraclinical parameters. Significant differences were found to IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-12p40, and IL-12p70 cytokines in individuals with autism compared with AMTD (p < 0.05). All autistic patients showed interictalepileptiform activity at EEG, however, only 37.5% suffered epilepsy. There was not a regional focalization of the abnormalities that were detectable with EEG in autistic patients with history of epilepsy. A higher IL-6 level was observed in patients without history of epilepsy with interictalepileptiform activity in the frontal brain region, p < 0.05. In conclusion, peripheral inflammatory markers might be useful as potential biomarkers to predict comorbidities in autism as well as reinforce and aid informed decision-making related to EEG findings in children with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). View Full-Text
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders; comorbidities; EEG; behavior; epilepsy; neuro-inflammation; social interaction Autism spectrum disorders; comorbidities; EEG; behavior; epilepsy; neuro-inflammation; social interaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Inga Jácome, M.C.; Morales Chacòn, L.M.; Vera Cuesta, H.; Maragoto Rizo, C.; Whilby Santiesteban, M.; Ramos Hernandez, L.; Noris García, E.; González Fraguela, M.E.; Fernandez Verdecia, C.I.; Vegas Hurtado, Y.; Siniscalco, D.; Gonçalves, C.A.; Robinson-Agramonte, M.A. Peripheral Inflammatory Markers Contributing to Comorbidities in Autism. Behav. Sci. 2016, 6, 29.

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