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Behav. Sci. 2014, 4(1), 72-86; doi:10.3390/bs4010072
Article

Ethnic Differences in Personality Disorder Patterns among Women Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD

1,* , 1,2
, 1,3
 and 4
Received: 1 November 2013; in revised form: 1 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
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Abstract: Personality Disorders (PDs) impair the ability to function socially and occupationally. PD prevalence rates among veterans who have also been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) range from 45%–79%. This study examined ethnic differences in PDs assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III in 260 non-Hispanic white (64%), Hispanic (27%), and African American (9%), mostly single, women veterans in treatment for PTSD. After adjusting for covariates including number and sexual-nature of trauma, findings revealed the adjusted odds ratio of having a cluster A PD was almost three times higher for African Americans (p = 0.046) then the other two ethnic groups, which may be driven by the paranoid PD scale and potentially reflects an adaptive response to racial discrimination. In cluster designation analysis, the odds were twice as high of having a cluster B PD with childhood trauma (p = 0.046), and a cluster C PD with sexual trauma (p = 0.004), demonstrating the significance of childhood and sexual trauma on long-term chronic personality patterns in women veterans. These results highlight the importance of using instruments with demonstrated diagnostic validity for minority populations.
Keywords: personality disorders; PTSD; women; veterans; race; ethnicity personality disorders; PTSD; women; veterans; race; ethnicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

C'de Baca, J.; Castillo, D.T.; Mackaronis, J.E.; Qualls, C. Ethnic Differences in Personality Disorder Patterns among Women Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD. Behav. Sci. 2014, 4, 72-86.

AMA Style

C'de Baca J, Castillo DT, Mackaronis JE, Qualls C. Ethnic Differences in Personality Disorder Patterns among Women Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD. Behavioral Sciences. 2014; 4(1):72-86.

Chicago/Turabian Style

C'de Baca, Janet; Castillo, Diane T.; Mackaronis, Julia E.; Qualls, Clifford. 2014. "Ethnic Differences in Personality Disorder Patterns among Women Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD." Behav. Sci. 4, no. 1: 72-86.



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