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Brief Treatment of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by Use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART®)
College of Nursing, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Western New England University, Springfield, MA 01119, USA
Balanced Living Psychology, Tampa, FL 33626, USA
Life Renewal Counseling, Tampa, FL 33544, USA
Research and Development Service, VA Hospital, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Departments of Psychology and Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Center for Preclinical and Clinical Research on PTSD, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2012; in revised form: 6 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
Abstract: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling anxiety disorder. This prospective cohort study reports on a new exposure-based therapy known as Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART®) that incorporates the use of eye movements administered in a brief treatment period (1–5 one-hour sessions within three weeks). Eighty adults aged 21–60 years with symptoms of PTSD were recruited from the Tampa Bay area. The ART-based psychotherapy was designed to minimize anxiety and body sensations associated with recall of traumatic memories and to replace distressing images with favorable ones. Participants’ mean age was 40 years, 77% were female, and 29% were Hispanic. Participants underwent a median of three ART sessions, 66 of 80 (82.5%) completed treatment, and 54 of 66 (81.8%) provided 2-month follow-up data. Mean scores pre- and post-ART and at 2-month follow-up were: PTSD Checklist: 54.5 ± 12.2 vs. 31.2 ± 11.4 vs. 30.0 ± 12.4; Brief Symptom Inventory: 30.8 ± 14.6 vs. 10.1 ± 10.8 vs. 10.1 ± 12.1; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: 29.5 ± 10.9 vs. 11.8 ± 11.1 vs. 13.5 ± 12.1; Trauma Related Growth Inventory-Distress scale: 18.9 ± 4.1 vs. 7.4 ± 5.9 vs. 8.2 ± 5.9 (p < 0.0001 for all pre-ART vs. post-ART and 2-month comparisons). No serious adverse events were reported. ART appears to be a brief, safe, and effective treatment for symptoms of PTSD.
Keywords: psychological trauma; PTSD; exposure therapy; eye movements; bilateral stimulation; brief treatment
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kip, K.E.; Elk, C.A.; Sullivan, K.L.; Kadel, R.; Lengacher, C.A.; Long, C.J.; Rosenzweig, L.; Shuman, A.; Hernandez, D.F.; Street, J.D.; Girling, S.A.; Diamond, D.M. Brief Treatment of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by Use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART®). Behav. Sci. 2012, 2, 115-134.
Kip KE, Elk CA, Sullivan KL, Kadel R, Lengacher CA, Long CJ, Rosenzweig L, Shuman A, Hernandez DF, Street JD, Girling SA, Diamond DM. Brief Treatment of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by Use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART®). Behavioral Sciences. 2012; 2(2):115-134.
Kip, Kevin E.; Elk, Carrie A.; Sullivan, Kelly L.; Kadel, Rajendra; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Long, Christopher J.; Rosenzweig, Laney; Shuman, Amy; Hernandez, Diego F.; Street, Jennifer D.; Girling, Sue Ann; Diamond, David M. 2012. "Brief Treatment of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by Use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART®)." Behav. Sci. 2, no. 2: 115-134.