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Med. Sci. 2018, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6020032

The Role of Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Type 2 and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: New Insights into “Old” Diseases

1
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Thuringia Clinic Saalfeld “Georgius Agricola”, Department of Internal Medicine II, Teaching Hospital of the University of Jena, Rainweg 68, D-07318 Saalfeld/Saale, Germany
2
Division of Gastroenterology, Thuringia Clinic Saalfeld “Georgius Agricola”, Department of Internal Medicine II, Teaching Hospital of the University of Jena, Rainweg 68, D-07318 Saalfeld/Saale, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Potential of the Microbiome)
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Abstract

The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties. This review focuses on disorders of metabolic syndrome, with special regard to obesity as a prequel to type 2 diabetes, type 2 diabetes itself, and type 1 diabetes. In all these conditions, differences in the composition of the gut microbiota in comparison to healthy people have been reported. Mechanisms of the interaction between microbiota and host that have been characterized thus far include an increase in energy harvest, modulation of free fatty acids—especially butyrate—of bile acids, lipopolysaccharides, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an impact on toll-like receptors, the endocannabinoid system and “metabolic endotoxinemia” as well as “metabolic infection.” This review will also address the influence of already established therapies for metabolic syndrome and diabetes on the microbiota and the present state of attempts to alter the gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiome; obesity; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes mellitus; type 1 diabetes mellitus; butyrate; probiotics; lipopolysaccharides; faecal microbiota transfer; metformin gut microbiome; obesity; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes mellitus; type 1 diabetes mellitus; butyrate; probiotics; lipopolysaccharides; faecal microbiota transfer; metformin
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Harsch, I.A.; Konturek, P.C. The Role of Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Type 2 and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: New Insights into “Old” Diseases. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 32.

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