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Med. Sci. 2016, 4(3), 13; doi:10.3390/medsci4030013

Alteration to Dopaminergic Synapses Following Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS), in Vitro and in Vivo

1
Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
2
Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Piccini
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Neurosciences)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3375 KB, uploaded 16 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Our understanding of the contribution exposure to environmental toxicants has on neurological disease continues to evolve. Of these, Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been shown to have a strong environmental component to its etiopathogenesis. However, work is still needed to identify and characterize environmental chemicals that could alter the expression and function of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Of particular interest is the neurotoxicological effect of perfluorinated compounds, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which has been demonstrated to alter aspects of dopamine signaling. Using in vitro approaches, we have elaborated these initial findings to demonstrate the neurotoxicity of PFOS to the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and dopaminergic primary cultured neurons. Using an in vivo model, we did not observe a deficit to dopaminergic terminals in the striatum of mice exposed to 10 mg/kg PFOS for 14 days. However, subsequent exposure to the selective dopaminergic neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) significantly reduced the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and resulted in an even greater reduction in DAT expression in animals previously exposed to PFOS. These findings suggest that PFOS is neurotoxic to the nigrostriatal dopamine circuit and this neurotoxicity could prime the dopamine terminal to more extensive damage following additional toxicological insults. View Full-Text
Keywords: dopamine transporter; perfluorooctane sulfonate; striatum; tyrosine hydroxylase; vesicular monoamine transporter 2 dopamine transporter; perfluorooctane sulfonate; striatum; tyrosine hydroxylase; vesicular monoamine transporter 2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, R.; Bradner, J.M.; Stout, K.A.; Caudle, W.M. Alteration to Dopaminergic Synapses Following Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS), in Vitro and in Vivo. Med. Sci. 2016, 4, 13.

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