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Med. Sci. 2016, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/medsci4010001

Parkinson Disease-Mediated Gastrointestinal Disorders and Rational for Combinatorial Therapies

Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
Department of Pain Medicine, Baptist Medical Center, Jacksonville, FL 32258, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Jia Chang
Received: 4 December 2015 / Revised: 24 December 2015 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [208 KB, uploaded 20 January 2016]


A gradual loss of dopamine-producing nerve cells gives rise to a common neurodegenerative Parkinson’s disease (PD). This disease causes a neurotransmitter imbalance in the brain and initiates a cascade of complications in the rest of the body that appears as distressing symptoms which include gait problems, tremor, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and cognitive decline. To aid dopamine deficiency, treatment in PD patients includes oral medications, in addition to other methods such as deep brain stimulation and surgical lesioning. Scientists are extensively studying molecular and signaling mechanisms, particularly those involving phenotypic transcription factors and their co-regulatory proteins that are associated with neuronal stem cell (SC) fate determination, maintenance and disease state, and their role in the pathogenesis of PD. Advancement in scientific research and “personalized medicine” to augment current therapeutic intervention and minimize the side effects of chemotherapy may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic strategies in the near future. This review focuses on PD and associated GI complications and summarizes the current therapeutic modalities that include stem cell studies and combinatorial drug treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson disease; neurodegeneration; bowel movements; stem cell; drug combination; targeted therapy Parkinson disease; neurodegeneration; bowel movements; stem cell; drug combination; targeted therapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ali, S.A.; Yin, N.; Rehman, A.; Justilien, V. Parkinson Disease-Mediated Gastrointestinal Disorders and Rational for Combinatorial Therapies. Med. Sci. 2016, 4, 1.

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