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Geosciences 2017, 7(1), 9; doi:10.3390/geosciences7010009

Volcanic Plume CO2 Flux Measurements at Mount Etna by Mobile Differential Absorption Lidar

1
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e del Mare, Università di Palermo, 90123 Palermo, Italy
2
Nuclear Fusion and Safety Technologies Department, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 00044 Frascati, Italy
3
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00173 Rome, Italy
4
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 90146 Palermo, Italy
5
ARES Consortium, 00100 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrew McGonigle, Giuseppe Salerno and Jesús Martínez-Frías
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract

Volcanic eruptions are often preceded by precursory increases in the volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) flux. Unfortunately, the traditional techniques used to measure volcanic CO2 require near-vent, in situ plume measurements that are potentially hazardous for operators and expose instruments to extreme conditions. To overcome these limitations, the project BRIDGE (BRIDging the gap between Gas Emissions and geophysical observations at active volcanoes) received funding from the European Research Council, with the objective to develop a new generation of volcanic gas sensing instruments, including a novel DIAL-Lidar (Differential Absorption Light Detection and Ranging) for remote (e.g., distal) CO2 observations. Here we report on the results of a field campaign carried out at Mt. Etna from 28 July 2016 to 1 August 2016, during which we used this novel DIAL-Lidar to retrieve spatially and temporally resolved profiles of excess CO2 concentrations inside the volcanic plume. By vertically scanning the volcanic plume at different elevation angles and distances, an excess CO2 concentration of tens of ppm (up to 30% above the atmospheric background of 400 ppm) was resolved from up to a 4 km distance from the plume itself. From this, the first remotely sensed volcanic CO2 flux estimation from Etna’s northeast crater was derived at ≈2850–3900 tons/day. This Lidar-based CO2 flux is in fair agreement with that (≈2750 tons/day) obtained using conventional techniques requiring the in situ measurement of volcanic gas composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: volcanic plumes; volcanic CO2 flux; remote sensing; Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) volcanic plumes; volcanic CO2 flux; remote sensing; Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santoro, S.; Parracino, S.; Fiorani, L.; D’Aleo, R.; Di Ferdinando, E.; Giudice, G.; Maio, G.; Nuvoli, M.; Aiuppa, A. Volcanic Plume CO2 Flux Measurements at Mount Etna by Mobile Differential Absorption Lidar. Geosciences 2017, 7, 9.

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