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Geosciences 2017, 7(1), 11; doi:10.3390/geosciences7010011

Aquifer Drawdown and Recovery in the Northeast Groundwater Management Area, Wisconsin, USA: A Century of Groundwater Use

1
Department of Natural & Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI 54311, USA
2
NEW Water (Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District), Green Bay, WI 54302, USA
3
Wisconsin Geological & Natural History Survey, Madison, WI 53705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Peiyue Li, Michael Schneider and Jesús Martínez-Frías
Received: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [18571 KB, uploaded 8 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

The Northeast Groundwater Management Area of Wisconsin, USA contains two major cones of depression in a confined sandstone aquifer. Each cone is centered near cities that have used groundwater for over 100 years. Near one of these cities (Green Bay), episodic changes in the development of groundwater and surface water resources during this period have resulted in major changes to the potentiometric surface. On two occasions, roughly 50 years apart, reductions in groundwater withdrawals have resulted from the construction of pipelines drawing surface water from Lake Michigan. In each case, rapid recovery of the potentiometric surface by as much as 70 m has occurred in the northern of the two pumping cones. The most recent switch occurred during 2006 and 2007 when eight communities stopped pumping groundwater, reducing daily withdrawals by approximately 46.37 million liters. The rate of water level recovery has diminished in some areas, with a return to a flowing artesian state for some municipal and residential wells. Although the northern portion of the groundwater management area has returned to a sustainable condition in the confined aquifer, the portion with the southern cone of depression remains in a state of prolonged drawdown. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wisconsin; groundwater management; recovery; potentiometric surface; drawdown; Cambrian; sandstone Wisconsin; groundwater management; recovery; potentiometric surface; drawdown; Cambrian; sandstone
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Luczaj, J.A.; Maas, J.; Hart, D.J.; Odekirk, J. Aquifer Drawdown and Recovery in the Northeast Groundwater Management Area, Wisconsin, USA: A Century of Groundwater Use. Geosciences 2017, 7, 11.

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