Monty Roberts’ Public Demonstrations: Preliminary Report on the Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability of Horses Undergoing Training during Live Audience Events
Askham Bryan College, York YO23 3FR, UK
Intelligent Horsemanship Ltd., Lethornes, Lambourn, Hungerford, Berkshire RG17 8QP, UK
The Old Schools, University of Cambridge, Trinity Lane, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK
Department of Epidemiology, Crisis Organization and Diagnostics, Central Veterinary Institute Part of Wageningen UR, Houtribweg 39, Lelystad 8221, The Netherlands
The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Clive J. C. Phillips
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analysis of beat-to-beat (RR) intervals and heart rate variability (HRV) of ten horses being used in Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations within the United Kingdom. RR and HRV was measured in the stable before training and during training. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR), root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD), geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2), along with the low and high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) were calculated. The minimum, average and maximum RR intervals were significantly lower in training (indicative of an increase in heart rate as measured in beats-per-minute) than in the stable ( p
= 0.0006; p
= 0.01; p
= 0.03). SDRR, RMSSD, SD1, SD2 and the LF/HF ratio were all significantly lower in training than in the stable ( p
= 0.001; p
= 0.049; p
= 0.049; p
= 0.001; p
= 0.01). When comparing the HR and HRV of horses during Join-up ®
to overall training, there were no significant differences in any variable with the exception of maximum RR which was significantly lower ( p
= 0.007) during Join-up ®
, indicative of short increases in physical exertion (canter) associated with this training exercise. In conclusion, training of horses during public demonstrations is a low-moderate physiological, rather than psychological stressor for horses. The physiological stress responses observed within this study were comparable or less to those previously reported in the literature for horses being trained outside of public audience events. Furthermore, there is no evidence that the use of Join-up ®
alters HR and HRV in a way to suggest that this training method negatively affects the psychological welfare of horses.
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MDPI and ACS Style
Loftus, L.; Marks, K.; Jones-McVey, R.; Gonzales, J.L.; Fowler, V.L. Monty Roberts’ Public Demonstrations: Preliminary Report on the Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability of Horses Undergoing Training during Live Audience Events. Animals 2016, 6, 55.
Loftus L, Marks K, Jones-McVey R, Gonzales JL, Fowler VL. Monty Roberts’ Public Demonstrations: Preliminary Report on the Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability of Horses Undergoing Training during Live Audience Events. Animals. 2016; 6(9):55.
Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L. 2016. "Monty Roberts’ Public Demonstrations: Preliminary Report on the Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability of Horses Undergoing Training during Live Audience Events." Animals 6, no. 9: 55.
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