Next Article in Journal
Dietary Betaine Impacts the Physiological Responses to Moderate Heat Conditions in a Dose Dependent Manner in Sheep
Next Article in Special Issue
Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) at an Outdoor Piggery
Previous Article in Journal
A Good Death? Report of the Second Newcastle Meeting on Laboratory Animal Euthanasia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Animals 2016, 6(9), 52; doi:10.3390/ani6090052

Comparison of Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injections vs. Castration in Pigs—Impacts on Behavior and Welfare

1
Laboratory of Animal Behavior, Physiology and Welfare, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
2
Department of Animal Science and Veterinary Technology, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 76401, USA
3
Department of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Minnesota, Crookston, MN 56716, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Clive J. C. Phillips
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 29 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Ethology and Welfare of Animals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [817 KB, uploaded 29 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Physical castration (PC) is painful and stressful for nursing piglets. One alternative to PC is immunological castration (IC), but the pain and stress of handling associated with injections have not been assessed. The objectives of this study were to measure the pain and distress of subcutaneous (SQ) and intramuscular (IM) injections compared to PC in piglets, and to compare SQ or IM injections in finishing pigs. After farrowing, 3 to 5 d old male piglets were randomly assigned to (control) no handling treatment (NO), sham-handling (SHAM), IM, SQ, or PC. Finishing pigs were assigned to NO, SHAM, IM, or SQ. Behavior was monitored for 1 h prior and 1 h post treatment in each age group. Social, feeding behaviors, and signs of pain were recorded. Finishing pigs treated with SQ injections had higher feeding behaviors pre-treatment than they did post-treatment. Overall, physical castrations caused measurable pain-like behaviors and general behavioral dysregulation at a much higher level than the other treatment groups. SQ and IM injections did not cause either significant behavioral or physiological alterations in piglets. SQ injections caused a decrease in finishing pig feed behaviors post treatment ( p = 0.02) and SHAM treated finishing pigs spent significantly more time lying than the other treatment groups. In general IM and SQ injections did not cause any other significant changes in behavior or physiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: pigs; physical castration; immunocastration; immunological castration; injection pigs; physical castration; immunocastration; immunological castration; injection
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

McGlone, J.; Guay, K.; Garcia, A. Comparison of Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injections vs. Castration in Pigs—Impacts on Behavior and Welfare. Animals 2016, 6, 52.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Animals EISSN 2076-2615 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top