Next Article in Journal
Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats
Previous Article in Journal
Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Animals 2016, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/ani6010007

Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

Bio-Mimetics Program, Carinthia University for Applied Sciences, Europastrasse 4, Villach 9524, Austria
Retired from: Department: Biology, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Free University Berlin, Takustr. 3, Berlin 14195, Germany
Academic Editor: Marina von Keyserlingk
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 31 December 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1183 KB, uploaded 15 January 2016]   |  


Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus ), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gypaetus barbatus; ochre; photo-sterilization; smell neutralization; disease prevention Gypaetus barbatus; ochre; photo-sterilization; smell neutralization; disease prevention

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tributsch, H. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health. Animals 2016, 6, 7.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Animals EISSN 2076-2615 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top