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Animals 2014, 4(2), 146-163; doi:10.3390/ani4020146
Review

Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

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Received: 27 November 2013; in revised form: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Animal Production)
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Simple Summary: Beside their use to treat infections, antibiotics are used excessively as growth promoting factors in livestock industry. Animals discharge in their feces and urine between 70%–90% of the antibiotic administrated unchanged or in active metabolites. Because livestock manure is re-applied to land as a fertilizer, concerns are growing over spread of antibiotics in water and soil. Development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major risk. This paper reviewed the potential of anaerobic digestion to degrade antibiotics in livestock manure. Anaerobic digestion can degrade manure-laden antibiotic to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources.
Abstract: Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics’ metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.
Keywords: antibiotics; livestock; manure; degradation; fate; anaerobic digestion antibiotics; livestock; manure; degradation; fate; anaerobic digestion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Massé, D.I.; Saady, N.M.C.; Gilbert, Y. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview. Animals 2014, 4, 146-163.

AMA Style

Massé DI, Saady NMC, Gilbert Y. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview. Animals. 2014; 4(2):146-163.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Massé, Daniel I.; Saady, Noori M.C.; Gilbert, Yan. 2014. "Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview." Animals 4, no. 2: 146-163.

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