Transcriptional Analysis Allows Genome Reannotation and Reveals that Cryptococcus gattii VGII Undergoes Nutrient Restriction during Infection
AbstractCryptococcus gattii is a human and animal pathogen that infects healthy hosts and caused the Pacific Northwest outbreak of cryptococcosis. The inhalation of infectious propagules can lead to internalization of cryptococcal cells by alveolar macrophages, a niche in which C. gattii cells can survive and proliferate. Although the nutrient composition of macrophages is relatively unknown, the high induction of amino acid transporter genes inside the phagosome indicates a preference for amino acid uptake instead of synthesis. However, the presence of countable errors in the R265 genome annotation indicates significant inhibition of transcriptomic analysis in this hypervirulent strain. Thus, we analyzed RNA-Seq data from in vivo and in vitro cultures of C. gattii R265 to perform the reannotation of the genome. In addition, based on in vivo transcriptomic data, we identified highly expressed genes and pathways of amino acid metabolism that would enable C. gattii to survive and proliferate in vivo. Importantly, we identified high expression in three APC amino acid transporters as well as the GABA permease. The use of amino acids as carbon and nitrogen sources, releasing ammonium and generating carbohydrate metabolism intermediaries, also explains the high expression of components of several degradative pathways, since glucose starvation is an important host defense mechanism. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
Supplementary (ZIP, 4790 KB)
Scifeed alert for new publicationsNever miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
- Get alerts for new papers matching your research
- Find out the new papers from selected authors
- Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
- Define your Scifeed now
Ferrareze, P.A.G.; Streit, R.S.A.; Santos, P.R.; Santos, F.M.; Almeida, R.M.C.; Schrank, A.; Kmetzsch, L.; Vainstein, M.H.; Staats, C.C. Transcriptional Analysis Allows Genome Reannotation and Reveals that Cryptococcus gattii VGII Undergoes Nutrient Restriction during Infection. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 49.
Ferrareze PAG, Streit RSA, Santos PR, Santos FM, Almeida RMC, Schrank A, Kmetzsch L, Vainstein MH, Staats CC. Transcriptional Analysis Allows Genome Reannotation and Reveals that Cryptococcus gattii VGII Undergoes Nutrient Restriction during Infection. Microorganisms. 2017; 5(3):49.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ferrareze, Patrícia Aline Gröhs; Streit, Rodrigo Silva Araujo; Santos, Patricia Ribeiro dos; Santos, Francine Melise dos; Almeida, Rita Maria Cunha de; Schrank, Augusto; Kmetzsch, Livia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Staats, Charley Christian. 2017. "Transcriptional Analysis Allows Genome Reannotation and Reveals that Cryptococcus gattii VGII Undergoes Nutrient Restriction during Infection." Microorganisms 5, no. 3: 49.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.