Next Article in Journal
Transcriptomic Complexity of Aspergillus terreus Velvet Gene Family under the Influence of Butyrolactone I
Previous Article in Journal
Lactobacillus gasseri PA-3 Uses the Purines IMP, Inosine and Hypoxanthine and Reduces their Absorption in Rats
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Microorganisms 2017, 5(1), 11; doi:10.3390/microorganisms5010011

The Food Production Environment and the Development of Antimicrobial Resistance in Human Pathogens of Animal Origin

1
QC Laboratory, Harvest and Post Harvest Technology Department, ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Seven Bungalows, Versova, Andheri (W), Mumbai 400061, India
2
CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre, Dr. Salim Ali Road, Kochi 682018, India
3
Department of Biology, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, NM 88130, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Comi
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [525 KB, uploaded 15 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain. Human infections by antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are increasing. Considering the human health risk due to emerging antibiotic resistance in food animal–associated bacteria, many countries have banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the application in animals of antibiotics critically important in human medicine. Concerted global efforts are necessary to minimize the use of antimicrobials in food animals in order to control the development of antibiotic resistance in these systems and their spread to humans via food and water. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic; growth promoter; pathogen; resistance; zoonosis antibiotic; growth promoter; pathogen; resistance; zoonosis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lekshmi, M.; Ammini, P.; Kumar, S.; Varela, M.F. The Food Production Environment and the Development of Antimicrobial Resistance in Human Pathogens of Animal Origin. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 11.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Microorganisms EISSN 2076-2607 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top