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Microorganisms 2016, 4(1), 4; doi:10.3390/microorganisms4010004

Phage Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on San Daniele Dry-Cured Ham and Elimination of Biofilms from Equipment and Working Environments

Department of Food Science, Università degli Studi di Udine, via Sondrio 2/a, 33100 Udine, Italy
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Academic Editor: Régine Talon
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Activity in Food)
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Abstract

The anti-listerial activity of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacteriophage Listex P100 (phage P100) was demonstrated in broths and on the surface of slices of dry-cured ham against 5 strains or serotypes (i.e., Scott A, 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) of Listeria monocytogenes. In a broth model system, phage P100 at a concentration equal to or greater than 7 log PFU/mL completely inhibited 2 log CFU/cm2 or 3 log CFU/cm2 of L. monocytogenes growth at 30 °C. The temperature (4, 10, 20 °C) seemed to influence P100 activity; the best results were obtained at 4 °C. On dry-cured ham slices, a P100 concentration ranging from 5 to 8 log PFU/cm2 was required to obtain a significant reduction in L. monocytogenes. At 4, 10, and 20 °C, an inoculum of 8 log PFU/cm2 was required to completely eliminate 2 log L. monocytogenes/cm2 and to reach the absence in 25 g product according to USA food law. Conversely, it was impossible to completely eradicate L. monocytogenes with an inoculum of approximately of 3.0 and 4.0 log CFU/cm2 and with a P100 inoculum ranging from 1 to 7 log PFU/cm2. P100 remained stable on dry-cured ham slices over a 14-day storage period, with only a marginal loss of 0.2 log PFU/cm2 from an initial phage treatment of approximately 8 log PFU/cm2. Moreover, phage P100 eliminated free L. monocytogenes cells and biofilms on the machinery surfaces used for dry-cured ham production. These findings demonstrate that the GRAS bacteriophage Listex P100 at level of 8 log PFU/cm2 is listericidal and useful for reducing the L. monocytogenes concentration or eradicating the bacteria from dry-cured ham. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophages; dry cured ham slices; working equipment; Listeria monocytogenes; biofilm; reduction bacteriophages; dry cured ham slices; working equipment; Listeria monocytogenes; biofilm; reduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iacumin, L.; Manzano, M.; Comi, G. Phage Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on San Daniele Dry-Cured Ham and Elimination of Biofilms from Equipment and Working Environments. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 4.

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