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Microorganisms 2016, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/microorganisms4010001

Microbial Biofilm Community Variation in Flowing Habitats: Potential Utility as Bioindicators of Postmortem Submersion Intervals

1
Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-2320, USA
2
Department of Biology, Millersville University, Millersville, PA 17551, USA
3
Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, 243 Natural Science Building, 288 Farm Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
4
Department of Osteopathic Medical Specialties, Michigan State University, 243 Natural Science Building, 288 Farm Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Willy Verstraete
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 4 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Resource Management)
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Abstract

Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses) and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles) communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Epinecrotic communities were significantly different from epilithic communities even though environmental factors associated with each stream location also had a significant influence on biofilm structure. All communities at both locations exhibited significant succession suggesting that changing communities throughout time is a general characteristic of stream biofilm communities. The implications resulting from this work are that epinecrotic communities have distinctive shifts at the first and second weeks, and therefore the potential to be used in forensic applications by associating successional changes with submersion time to estimate a PMSI. The influence of environmental factors, however, indicates the lack of a successional pattern with the same organisms and a focus on functional diversity may be more applicable in a forensic context. View Full-Text
Keywords: epinecrotic; succession; epilithic; forensic; freshwater; necrobiome; ARISA (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis); PMSI epinecrotic; succession; epilithic; forensic; freshwater; necrobiome; ARISA (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis); PMSI
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lang, J.M.; Erb, R.; Pechal, J.L.; Wallace, J.R.; McEwan, R.W.; Benbow, M.E. Microbial Biofilm Community Variation in Flowing Habitats: Potential Utility as Bioindicators of Postmortem Submersion Intervals. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 1.

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