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Microorganisms 2016, 4(1), 14; doi:10.3390/microorganisms4010014

Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants

Departamento de Biotecnología Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Academic Editor: Laurent Poirel
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1953 KB, uploaded 16 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given bacterial species present the same chromosomally-encoded efflux pumps. Altogether this indicates that multidrug efflux pumps are ancient elements encoded in bacterial genomes long before the recent use of antibiotics for human and animal therapy. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that efflux pumps can extrude a wide range of substrates that include, besides antibiotics, heavy metals, organic pollutants, plant-produced compounds, quorum sensing signals or bacterial metabolites, among others. In the current review, we present information on the different functions that multidrug efflux pumps may have for the bacterial behaviour in different habitats as well as on their regulation by specific signals. Since, in addition to their function in non-clinical ecosystems, multidrug efflux pumps contribute to intrinsic, acquired, and phenotypic resistance of bacterial pathogens, the review also presents information on the search for inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, which are currently under development, in the aim of increasing the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: multidrug efflux pumps; MDR; quorum sensing; antibiotic resistance; solvent tolerance; bacteria/plant interactions multidrug efflux pumps; MDR; quorum sensing; antibiotic resistance; solvent tolerance; bacteria/plant interactions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Blanco, P.; Hernando-Amado, S.; Reales-Calderon, J.A.; Corona, F.; Lira, F.; Alcalde-Rico, M.; Bernardini, A.; Sanchez, M.B.; Martinez, J.L. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 14.

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