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Microorganisms 2015, 3(3), 407-416; doi:10.3390/microorganisms3030407

Pyruvate: A key Nutrient in Hypersaline Environments?

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
Academic Editors: Ricardo Amils and Elena González Toril
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extremophiles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [665 KB, uploaded 11 August 2015]

Abstract

Some of the most commonly occurring but difficult to isolate halophilic prokaryotes, Archaea as well as Bacteria, require or prefer pyruvate as carbon and energy source. The most efficient media for the enumeration and isolation of heterotrophic prokaryotes from natural environments, from freshwater to hypersaline, including the widely used R2A agar medium, contain pyruvate as a key ingredient. Examples of pyruvate-loving halophiles are the square, extremely halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi and the halophilic gammaproteobacterium Spiribacter salinus. However, surprisingly little is known about the availability of pyruvate in natural environments and about the way it enters the cell. Some halophilic Archaea (Halorubrum saccharovorum, Haloarcula spp.) partially convert sugars and glycerol to pyruvate and other acids (acetate, lactate) which are excreted to the medium. Pyruvate formation from glycerol was also shown during a bloom of halophilic Archaea in the Dead Sea. However, no pyruvate transporters were yet identified in the genomes of halophilic Archaea, and altogether, our understanding of pyruvate transport in the prokaryote world is very limited. Therefore, the preference for pyruvate by fastidious and often elusive halophiles and the empirically proven enhanced colony recovery on agar media containing pyruvate are still poorly understood. View Full-Text
Keywords: pyruvate; Halobacteriaceae; Haloquadratum; Halosimplex; Spiribacter; glycerol; dihydroxyacetone pyruvate; Halobacteriaceae; Haloquadratum; Halosimplex; Spiribacter; glycerol; dihydroxyacetone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Oren, A. Pyruvate: A key Nutrient in Hypersaline Environments? Microorganisms 2015, 3, 407-416.

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