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Microorganisms 2014, 2(3), 128-139; doi:10.3390/microorganisms2030128

Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 901, 14th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294-1240, USA
2
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, UAB School of Dentistry, 1919 7th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
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Abstract

Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: makaluvamine; pyrroloiminoquinone; marine alkaloid; Streptococcus mutans; biofilm; antibacterial; dental caries makaluvamine; pyrroloiminoquinone; marine alkaloid; Streptococcus mutans; biofilm; antibacterial; dental caries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nijampatnam, B.; Nadkarni, D.H.; Wu, H.; Velu, S.E. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs. Microorganisms 2014, 2, 128-139.

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