Next Article in Journal
Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs
Previous Article in Journal
The Science behind the Probiotic Strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12®
Microorganisms 2014, 2(2), 111-127; doi:10.3390/microorganisms2020111
Article

Butyrolactone I Quantification from Lovastatin Producing Aspergillus terreus Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry—Evidence of Signalling Functions

1,2,* , 1
,
3
,
1,2
,
3
,
1
 and
2,4
1 Biochemistry, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, Åbo FI-20520, Finland 2 Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, Åbo FI-20520, Finland 3 School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London W1W 6UW, UK 4 Faculty of Life Sciences and Business, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Lemminkäinengatan 30, Åbo FI-20520, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [433 KB, uploaded 4 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Aspergillus terreus is an industrially important filamentous fungus producing a wide spectrum of secondary metabolites, including lovastatin and itaconic acid. It also produces butyrolactone I which has shown potential as an antitumour agent. Additionally, butyrolactone I has been implicated to have a regulating role in the secondary metabolism and morphology of A. terreus. In this study, a quantitative time-course liquid chromatography—electrospray ionisation—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) analysis of butyrolactone I is reported for the first time in nine-day long submerged cultures of A. terreus. Butyrolactone I was fragmented in the mass analysis producing a reproducible fragmentation pattern of four main daughter ions (m/z 307, 331, 363 and 393) in all the samples tested. Supplementing the cultures with 100 nM butyrolactone I caused a statistically significant increase (up to two-fold) in its production, regardless of the growth stage but was constitutive when butyrolactone I was added at high cell density during the stationary phase. Furthermore, the extracellular butyrolactone I concentration peaked at 48 h post inoculation, showing a similar profile as has been reported for bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Taken together, the results support the idea of butyrolactone I as a quorum sensing molecule in A. terreus.
Keywords: Aspergillus terreus; butyrolactone I; secondary metabolism; signalling; quorum sensing; HPLC; LC-ESI-MS-MS Aspergillus terreus; butyrolactone I; secondary metabolism; signalling; quorum sensing; HPLC; LC-ESI-MS-MS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Palonen, E.K.; Neffling, M.-R.; Raina, S.; Brandt, A.; Keshavarz, T.; Meriluoto, J.; Soini, J. Butyrolactone I Quantification from Lovastatin Producing Aspergillus terreus Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry—Evidence of Signalling Functions. Microorganisms 2014, 2, 111-127.

View more citation formats

Article Metrics

Comments

[Return to top]
Microorganisms EISSN 2076-2607 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert