Microorganisms 2014, 2(1), 73-91; doi:10.3390/microorganisms2010073
Review

A Comparative Overview of the Flagellar Apparatus of Dinoflagellate, Perkinsids and Colpodellids

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Received: 24 November 2013; in revised form: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Dinoflagellates are a member of the Alveolata, and elucidation of the early evolution of alveolates is important for our understanding of dinoflagellates, and vice versa. The ultrastructure of the flagellar apparatus has been described from several dinoflagellates in the last few decades, and the basic components appear to be well conserved. The typical dinoflagellate apparatus is composed of two basal bodies surrounded by striated collars attached to a connective fiber. The longitudinal basal body is connected to a longitudinal microtubular root (LMR; equivalent of R1) and single microtubular root (R2), whereas the transverse basal body is connected to a transverse microtubular root (TMR; R3) and transverse striated root (TSR) with a microtubule (R4). Some of these components, especially the connective fibers and collars, are dinoflagellate specific characteristics that make their flagellar apparatus relatively complex. We also compare these structures with the flagellar apparatus from a number of close relatives of dinoflagellates and their sister, the apicomplexans, including colpodellids, perkinsids, and Psammosa. Though the ultrastructural knowledge of these lineages is still relatively modest, it provides us with an interesting viewpoint of the character evolution of the flagellar apparatus among those lineages.
Keywords: apicomplexa; Chromera; Colpodella; colpodellids; dinoflagellates; Dinozoa; Oxyrrhis; perkinsids; Perkinsus; Psammosa; Rastrimonas; the apical complex; the flagellar apparatus; Vitrella
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okamoto, N.; Keeling, P.J. A Comparative Overview of the Flagellar Apparatus of Dinoflagellate, Perkinsids and Colpodellids. Microorganisms 2014, 2, 73-91.

AMA Style

Okamoto N, Keeling PJ. A Comparative Overview of the Flagellar Apparatus of Dinoflagellate, Perkinsids and Colpodellids. Microorganisms. 2014; 2(1):73-91.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Okamoto, Noriko; Keeling, Patrick J. 2014. "A Comparative Overview of the Flagellar Apparatus of Dinoflagellate, Perkinsids and Colpodellids." Microorganisms 2, no. 1: 73-91.

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