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Actuators, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 19-58

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Research

Open AccessArticle Optically Driven Mobile Integrated Micro-Tools for a Lab-on-a-Chip
Actuators 2013, 2(2), 19-26; doi:10.3390/act2020019
Received: 2 February 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes an optically driven complex micromachine with an Archimedes microscrew as the mechanical power, a sphere as a coupler, and three knives as the mechanical tools. The micromachine is fabricated by two-photon polymerization and is portably driven by optical tweezers. Because
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This study proposes an optically driven complex micromachine with an Archimedes microscrew as the mechanical power, a sphere as a coupler, and three knives as the mechanical tools. The micromachine is fabricated by two-photon polymerization and is portably driven by optical tweezers. Because the microscrew can be optically trapped and rotates spontaneously, it provides driving power for the complex micro-tools. In other words, when a laser beam focuses on the micromachine, the microscrew is trapped toward the focus point and simultaneously rotates. A demonstration showed that the integrated micromachines are grasped by the optical tweezers and rotated by the Archimedes screw. The rotation efficiencies of the microrotors with and without knives are 1.9 rpm/mW and 13.5 rpm/mW, respectively. The micromachine can also be portably dragged along planed routes. Such Archimedes screw-based optically driven complex mechanical micro-tools enable rotation similar to moving machines or mixers, which could contribute to applications for a biological microfluidic chip or a lab-on-a-chip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Centered Actuators)
Open AccessArticle Analysis and Modeling of Linear-Switched Reluctance for Medical Application
Actuators 2013, 2(2), 27-44; doi:10.3390/act2020027
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on the analysis, the modeling and the control of a linear-switched reluctance motor. The application under consideration is medical, and the actuator is to be used as a left ventricular assist device. The actuator has a cylindrical or tubular shape,
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This paper focuses on the analysis, the modeling and the control of a linear-switched reluctance motor. The application under consideration is medical, and the actuator is to be used as a left ventricular assist device. The actuator has a cylindrical or tubular shape, with a mechanical unidirectional valve placed inside the mover, which provides a pulsatile flow of blood. The analytical expression of the effort based on the linear behavior of the actuator is given. The identification of the characteristics of the prototype actuator and the principle of position control is performed. A modeling of the actuator is proposed, taking into account the variation of inductance with respect to the position. The closed-loop position control of the actuator is performed by simulation. A controller with integral action and anticipatory action is implemented in order to compensate the effects of disturbing efforts and tracking deviations. Moreover, a magic switch is performed in the controller to avoid overshoots. The results show that the closed-loop response of the actuator is satisfactory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Centered Actuators)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Passive Dynamics for Physical Interaction: Catching a Mass
Actuators 2013, 2(2), 45-58; doi:10.3390/act2020045
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For manipulation tasks in uncertain environments, intentionally designed series impedance in mechanical systems can provide significant benefits that cannot be achieved in software. Traditionally, the design of actuated systems revolves around sizing torques, speeds, and control strategies without considering the system’s passive dynamics.
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For manipulation tasks in uncertain environments, intentionally designed series impedance in mechanical systems can provide significant benefits that cannot be achieved in software. Traditionally, the design of actuated systems revolves around sizing torques, speeds, and control strategies without considering the system’s passive dynamics. However, the passive dynamics of the mechanical system, including inertia, stiffness, and damping along with other parameters such as torque and stroke limits often impose performance limitations that cannot be overcome with software control. In this paper, we develop relationships between an actuator’s passive dynamics and the resulting performance for the purpose of better understanding how to tune the passive dynamics for catching an unexpected object. We use a mathematically optimal controller subject to force limitations to stop the incoming object without breaking contact and bouncing. The use of an optimal controller is important so that our results directly reflect the physical system’s performance. We analytically calculate the maximum velocity that can be caught by a realistic actuator with limitations such as force and stroke limits. The results show that in order to maximize the velocity of an object that can be caught without exceeding the actuator’s torque and stroke limits, a soft spring along with a strong damper will be desired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Centered Actuators)

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