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Pathogens 2017, 6(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6030036

Hospital Drains as Reservoirs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Multiple-Locus Variable-Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis Genotypes Recovered from Faucets, Sink Surfaces and Patients

1
INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC H7V 1B7, Canada
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
3
Department of microbiology, infectious diseases and immunology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
4
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Régional de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC G5L 5T1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract

Identifying environmental sources of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) related to hospital-acquired infections represents a key challenge for public health. Biofilms in water systems offer protection and favorable growth conditions, and are prime reservoirs of microorganisms. A comparative genotyping survey assessing the relationship between Pa strains recovered in hospital sink biofilm and isolated in clinical specimens was conducted. Environmental strains from drain, faucet and sink-surface biofilm were recovered by a culture method after an incubation time ranging from 48 to 240 h. The genotyping of 38 environmental and 32 clinical isolates was performed using a multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). More than one-third of Pa isolates were only cultivable following ≥48 h of incubation, and were predominantly from faucet and sink-surface biofilms. In total, 41/70 strains were grouped within eight genotypes (A to H). Genotype B grouped a clinical and an environmental strain isolated in the same ward, 5 months apart, suggesting this genotype could thrive in both contexts. Genotype E grouped environmental isolates that were highly prevalent throughout the hospital and that required a longer incubation time. The results from the multi-hospital follow-up study support the drain as an important reservoir of Pa dissemination to faucets, sink surfaces and patients. Optimizing the recovery of environmental strains will strengthen epidemiological investigations, facilitate pathway identification, and assist in identifying and controlling the reservoirs potentially associated to hospital-acquired infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: sink environment; MLVA; genotyping; environmental reservoir; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; heathcare-acquired infections sink environment; MLVA; genotyping; environmental reservoir; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; heathcare-acquired infections
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Lalancette, C.; Charron, D.; Laferrière, C.; Dolcé, P.; Déziel, E.; Prévost, M.; Bédard, E. Hospital Drains as Reservoirs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Multiple-Locus Variable-Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis Genotypes Recovered from Faucets, Sink Surfaces and Patients. Pathogens 2017, 6, 36.

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