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Pathogens 2016, 5(1), 28; doi:10.3390/pathogens5010028

Ciprofloxacin-Induced Antibacterial Activity Is Atteneuated by Pretreatment with Antioxidant Agents

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
2
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
3
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
4
College of applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 12372, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lawrence S. Young
Received: 9 January 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract

Ciprofloxacin works through interfering with replication and transcription of bacterial DNA, which leads to increased oxidative stress, and death of bacterial cells. Drugs with strong antioxidant such as tempol, melatonin and pentoxifylline might interfere with the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin. In the current study, the effect of these drugs on the cytotoxicity of ciprofloxacin was investigated against several reference bacteria. Standard bacterial strains included Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43300), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923). The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin with or without treatment of bacterial cells by tempol, melatonin or pentoxifylline was assessed using the disc diffusion method and by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zones of inhibition of bacterial growth. All of the tested bacterial strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. When treated with tempol, melatonin or pentoxifylline, all bacterial strains showed significantly smaller zones of inhibition and larger MIC values compared ciprofloxacin alone. In correlation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by ciprofloxacin antibacterial action was diminished by treatment of bacterial cells with tempol, melatonin or pentoxifylline. In conclusion, results indicate the possible antagonistic properties for agents with antioxidant properties such as tempol, melatonin and pentoxifylline when they are used concurrently with flouroquinolones. This could be related to the ability of these agents to inhibit oxidative stress in bacterial cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: ciprofloxacin; tempol; melatonin; pentoxifylline; antimicrobial susceptibility; MIC ciprofloxacin; tempol; melatonin; pentoxifylline; antimicrobial susceptibility; MIC
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Masadeh, M.M.; Alzoubi, K.H.; Al-azzam, S.I.; Khabour, O.F.; Al-buhairan, A.M. Ciprofloxacin-Induced Antibacterial Activity Is Atteneuated by Pretreatment with Antioxidant Agents. Pathogens 2016, 5, 28.

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