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Pathogens 2015, 4(3), 513-528; doi:10.3390/pathogens4030513

HACCP-Based Programs for Preventing Disease and Injury from Premise Plumbing: A Building Consensus

1
Phigenics, LLC, 1701 Quincy Ave., Suite 32, Naperville, IL 60540, USA
2
Gordon & Rosenblatt, LLC, 45 Rockefeller Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10111, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark W. LeChevallier
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 4 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waterborne Pathogens)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [479 KB, uploaded 13 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Thousands of preventable injuries and deaths are annually caused by microbial, chemical and physical hazards from building water systems. Water is processed in buildings before use; this can degrade the quality of the water. Processing steps undertaken on-site in buildings often include conditioning, filtering, storing, heating, cooling, pressure regulation and distribution through fixtures that restrict flow and temperature. Therefore, prevention of disease and injury requires process management. A process management framework for buildings is the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) adaptation of failure mode effects analysis (FMEA). It has been proven effective for building water system management. Validation is proof that hazards have been controlled under operating conditions and may include many kinds of evidence including cultures of building water samples to detect and enumerate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. However, results from culture tests are often inappropriately used because the accuracy and precision are not sufficient to support specifications for control limit or action triggers. A reliable negative screen is based on genus-level Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for Legionella in building water systems; however, building water samples with positive results from this test require further analysis by culture methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: Legionella; Legionnaires’ disease; legionellosis; non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM); Pseudomonas; biofilm; free living amoeba (FLA); free living protozoa (FLP); HACCP; buildings; water safety plans; hazards Legionella; Legionnaires’ disease; legionellosis; non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM); Pseudomonas; biofilm; free living amoeba (FLA); free living protozoa (FLP); HACCP; buildings; water safety plans; hazards
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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McCoy, W.F.; Rosenblatt, A.A. HACCP-Based Programs for Preventing Disease and Injury from Premise Plumbing: A Building Consensus. Pathogens 2015, 4, 513-528.

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