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Pathogens 2015, 4(2), 373-386; doi:10.3390/pathogens4020373

Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, 5008 Derring Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA
2
Via Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, 401 Durham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark W. LeChevallier
Received: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waterborne Pathogens)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [193 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]

Abstract

Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. View Full-Text
Keywords: opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens; Mycobacterium avium; Legionella pneumophila; Pseudomonas aeruginosa opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens; Mycobacterium avium; Legionella pneumophila; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Falkinham, J.O., III; Pruden, A.; Edwards, M. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water. Pathogens 2015, 4, 373-386.

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