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Pathogens 2013, 2(2), 402-421; doi:10.3390/pathogens2020402
Review

Animal Models of Tick-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

1,2
, 2
 and 1,2,*
1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg R3E 0J9, Canada 2 Laboratory of Virology Division of Intramural Research, National Institute Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton 59840, Montana, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 28 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen Infection Models)
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Abstract

Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses (TBHFV) are detected throughout the African and Eurasian continents and are an emerging or re-emerging threat to many nations. Due to the largely sporadic incidences of these severe diseases, information on human cases and research activities in general have been limited. In the past decade, however, novel TBHFVs have emerged and areas of endemicity have expanded. Therefore, the development of countermeasures is of utmost importance in combating TBHFV as elimination of vectors and interrupting enzootic cycles is all but impossible and ecologically questionable. As in vivo models are the only way to test efficacy and safety of countermeasures, understanding of the available animal models and the development and refinement of animal models is critical in negating the detrimental impact of TBHFVs on public and animal health.
Keywords: Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus; Kyasanur forest disease virus; severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus; Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus; animal models Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus; Kyasanur forest disease virus; severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus; Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus; animal models
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zivcec, M.; Safronetz, D.; Feldmann, H. Animal Models of Tick-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses. Pathogens 2013, 2, 402-421.

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