Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Eyes of That Cow: Eating Animals and Theorizing Vegetarianism in James Joyce’s Ulysses
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Flower Power: Desire, Gender, and Folk Belief in the Joycean Mary Garden
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Humanities 2017, 6(3), 45; doi:10.3390/h6030045

Joyce’s “Force” and His Tuskers as Modern Animals

Graduate School of Language and Society, Hitotsubashi University, 2-1 Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-8601, Japan
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Joyce, Animals and the Nonhuman)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [593 KB, uploaded 3 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Focusing on those animals that have been overlooked in reading Joyce’s work opens up new perspectives for understanding his writing. One of his earliest essays, “Force” (1898), written at the age of sixteen, shows his so far unexplored concern about the domestication of animals and extinction of species, and develops a theory of subjugation. The essay provides a useful mainstay for considering the “tuskers,” (the mammoth and mastodon, the elephants, their tusks, and ivory) in the context of the cultural discourses of modern society. The game-changer discovery of the notion of extinction; representation of mammoths and mastodons as fearful creatures; the novelty of elephants exposed to curious gaze on exhibition; the sculpture of Elvery’s Elephant House in Sackville street; a circus elephant and “terrible queer creature” episode in Stephen Hero; the forced labor perpetrated in the Congo Free State to exploit rubber and the ivory of wild elephants. These seemingly disparate topics deeply wedded to modernity will be interrelated with each other in “Force,” shaping a constellation of “Joyce’s tuskers.” View Full-Text
Keywords: James Joyce; Irish studies; animal studies; zoology; modernity; subjugation; extinction; Anthropocene; mammoths; mastodons; elephants; ivory James Joyce; Irish studies; animal studies; zoology; modernity; subjugation; extinction; Anthropocene; mammoths; mastodons; elephants; ivory
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Minamitani, Y. Joyce’s “Force” and His Tuskers as Modern Animals. Humanities 2017, 6, 45.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Humanities EISSN 2076-0787 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top