Next Article in Journal
It’s Not Real Until It’s on Facebook: A Qualitative Analysis of Social Media and Digital Communication among Emerging Adults in College
Previous Article in Journal
Windows of Opportunity for Whom? Commissioners, Access, and the Balance of Interest in European Environmental Governance
Previous Article in Special Issue
Gender, Migration and Development: Can Advocacy Groups Be More of a Hindrance than a Help?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 75; doi:10.3390/socsci6030075

What Are the Main Challenges Impeding Implementation of the Spatial Plans in Egypt Using Ecotourism Development as an Example?

1
Department of Geography and planning, University of Liverpool, L697ZT Liverpool, UK
2
Faculty of Urban and Regional Planning, Cairo University, 12613 Giza, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender, Environment, and Development)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2419 KB, uploaded 17 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

In Egypt, highly technical plans are drawn up, but nobody puts them into practice. They always end up gathering dust on the shelves of national agencies or local government without being utilised to make improvements to local economic or environmental well-being. This is because such plans did not reflect the stakeholder interests nor deal with their conflicts. The collaborative planning approach is exalted as one of the best methods to help reach a consensus between the stakeholders about the issues and to advance shared solutions and then increase the likelihood of successful implementation of a plan. However, the stakeholder collaboration and engagement practice in Egypt remains ineffective. This research seeks to investigate and understand the challenges and barriers that have hindered the efficiency of stakeholder engagement during ecotourism planning as a sectorial case study by focusing on two case studies, and critiquing existing experiences of ecotourism development planning based upon a conceptual framework for investigating and understanding those challenges. Evidence was drawn from a critical documentary review, and combined with observation and semi-structured interviews with 56 ecotourism experts and stakeholders. The analysis suggests that the stakeholder engagement was tokenistic, and the central government was still dominant. This is a result of three groups of challenges including deficiencies in operationalising stakeholder engagement and challenges associated with the government and non-government stakeholder groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial plans implementation; planning process; collaborative approach; ecotourism and stakeholders engagement spatial plans implementation; planning process; collaborative approach; ecotourism and stakeholders engagement
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kenawy, E.; Osman, T.; Alshamndy, A. What Are the Main Challenges Impeding Implementation of the Spatial Plans in Egypt Using Ecotourism Development as an Example? Soc. Sci. 2017, 6, 75.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Soc. Sci. EISSN 2076-0760 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top