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Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(1), 22; doi:10.3390/socsci6010022

Structural Disadvantage: Evidence of Gender Disparities in the Norwegian Pension System

Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
Academic Editor: Martin J. Bull
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract

Norway is a world leader in gender equality according to sustainable development performance indicators. This study goes beyond these indicators to investigate systemic economic disadvantages for women, focusing specifically on the Norwegian pension system. System dynamics modeling is used to understand how gender disparity is built into social systems. A significant contributor to the gender inequality in pensions is the difference in lifetime working hours due to childbearing/rearing. There are childcare policies in place to equalize lifetime working hours between the genders; however, these policies require women to conform to the pension system structure and outsource their childcare. The system dynamics modeling illustrates how social investment strategy requires women to conform to a masculine pension system if they want equivalent financial security when they reach retirement. View Full-Text
Keywords: gender inequality; system dynamics; pension; social investment strategy; childcare policy; social sustainability gender inequality; system dynamics; pension; social investment strategy; childcare policy; social sustainability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Palmer, E.K. Structural Disadvantage: Evidence of Gender Disparities in the Norwegian Pension System. Soc. Sci. 2017, 6, 22.

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