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Soc. Sci. 2015, 4(4), 1185-1206; doi:10.3390/socsci4041185

Facing the Gender Gap in Aging: Italian Women’s Pension in the European Context

1
Department of Political Science, Communication and International Relations, University of Macerata, Via Don Minzoni, 22/A–62100 Macerata, Italy
2
Department of Education, Cultural Heritage and Tourism, University of Macerata, P.le Bertelli, 1–62100 Macerata, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martin J. Bull
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 30 November 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [459 KB, uploaded 30 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous) significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first critical reviews of the small but growing literature and national data concerning the effect of gender inequalities related to pension gaps in Italy. In the past, research on the balance of welfare provision between State, family, and market has ignored gender, while more recent studies have barely explored how gender roles, changing over time, interact with the shifts in pension policies. Considering the effects of work-life balance policies since the 2000 Lisbon agenda process and its development, the study especially focuses on the Italian case within the European context. The article examines how the choices in work-life balance policies vary between different national contexts and welfare regimes, by highlighting the Italian case. In this country, welfare and social policy regimes remain very unbalanced, showing a lack of awareness of family and women’s needs, as in many Southern countries, and Italy is not able to give appropriate answers to these problems and to the question of the growing gender gap. This article finally shows the poignancy of structural and cultural reasons for gender differentiated pension levels in Italy, within the European context, according to patterns of employment, marital, and maternal status between earlier and later generations of women. View Full-Text
Keywords: old women; gender gap; aging; work-family balance; welfare state; pensions policies; Italy old women; gender gap; aging; work-family balance; welfare state; pensions policies; Italy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zanier, M.L.; Crespi, I. Facing the Gender Gap in Aging: Italian Women’s Pension in the European Context. Soc. Sci. 2015, 4, 1185-1206.

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