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Buildings 2017, 7(2), 48; doi:10.3390/buildings7020048

Mass Timber Rocking Panel Retrofit of a Four-Story Soft-Story Building with Full-Scale Shake Table Validation

1
Structural Engineer, KPFF Consulting Engineers, Tacoma, WA 98407, USA
2
George T. Abell Professor in Infrastructure, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
3
Assistant Professor, Integrated Wood Design, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9, Canada
4
Research Engineer, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco López Almansa
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Performance of Timber Platform Frame Buildings)

Abstract

Soft-story wood-frame buildings have been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem for decades. There are tens of thousands of these multi-family three- and four-story structures throughout California and other cities in the United States. The majority were constructed between 1920 and 1970, with many being prevalent in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The NEES-Soft project was a five-university multi-industry effort that culminated in a series of full-scale soft-story wood-frame building tests to validate retrofit philosophies proposed by (1) the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) P-807 guidelines and (2) a performance-based seismic retrofit (PBSR) approach developed within the project. Four different retrofit designs were developed and validated at full-scale, each with specified performance objectives, which were typically not the same. This paper focuses on the retrofit design using cross laminated timber (CLT) rocking panels and presents the experimental results of the full-scale shake table test of a four-story 370 m2 (4000 ft2) soft-story test building with that FEMA P-807 focused retrofit in place. The building was subjected to the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1992 Cape Mendocino ground motions scaled to 5% damped spectral accelerations ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 g. View Full-Text
Keywords: cross laminated timber (CLT); performance-based seismic retrofit (PBSR); FEMA P-807; soft-story; wood-frame; shake table testing; seismic retrofit cross laminated timber (CLT); performance-based seismic retrofit (PBSR); FEMA P-807; soft-story; wood-frame; shake table testing; seismic retrofit
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bahmani, P.; van de Lindt, J.; Iqbal, A.; Rammer, D. Mass Timber Rocking Panel Retrofit of a Four-Story Soft-Story Building with Full-Scale Shake Table Validation. Buildings 2017, 7, 48.

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