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Laws, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 51-149

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Research

Open AccessArticle Sodomy Laws and Gender Variance in Tahiti and Hawai‘i
Laws 2013, 2(2), 51-68; doi:10.3390/laws2020051
Received: 19 February 2013 / Revised: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 April 2013 / Published: 9 April 2013
PDF Full-text (213 KB)
Abstract
In both Hawaiian and Tahitian, the central meaning of mahu denotes gender-variant individuals, particularly male-bodied persons who have a significant investment in femininity. However, in Hawai‘i, unlike Tahiti, the word mahu is now more commonly used as an insult against gay or transgender
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In both Hawaiian and Tahitian, the central meaning of mahu denotes gender-variant individuals, particularly male-bodied persons who have a significant investment in femininity. However, in Hawai‘i, unlike Tahiti, the word mahu is now more commonly used as an insult against gay or transgender people. The negative connotation of the term in Hawaiian indexes lower levels of social acceptability for mahu identity on O‘ahu (Hawai‘i’s most populous island) as compared to Tahiti. The article argues that these differences are partly due to a historical legacy of sexually repressive laws. The article traces the history of sodomy laws in these two Polynesian societies and argues that this history supports the hypothesis that sodomy laws (in conjunction with such social processes as urbanisation and Christianisation) are partially to blame for the diminished social status of mahu on O‘ahu. A different social and legal history in Tahiti accounts for the fact that the loss of social status experienced by Tahitian mahu has been lesser than that of their Hawaiian counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legally Constructed Gendered Identities)
Open AccessArticle The Structure of European Food Law
Laws 2013, 2(2), 69-98; doi:10.3390/laws2020069
Received: 23 February 2013 / Revised: 4 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This contribution lays bare the structure of EU food law as it appears from scholarly analysis at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. The structure of EU food law can be used as a framework for teaching, application, further analysis and comparison to food
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This contribution lays bare the structure of EU food law as it appears from scholarly analysis at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. The structure of EU food law can be used as a framework for teaching, application, further analysis and comparison to food law approaches in other parts of the world. From this analysis, food law emerges as a functional area of law. Core elements are: (1) the objectives of EU food law to protect consumers’ interests; (2) the principles of risk analysis and precaution; (3) obligations on businesses regarding the products they place on the market, the processes they apply and their communication towards consumers; and (4) public powers of law enforcement and incident management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Food Safety Law and Policy)
Open AccessArticle The Importance Placed on the Monitoring of Food Safety and Quality by Australian Consumers
Laws 2013, 2(2), 99-114; doi:10.3390/laws2020099
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 23 May 2013 / Published: 27 May 2013
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Abstract
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) estimates that Australians experience 5.4 million incidents of food poisoning each year, making food safety a significant public health issue. This paper describes and analyses the importance placed by Australians on the role of the agencies and
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Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) estimates that Australians experience 5.4 million incidents of food poisoning each year, making food safety a significant public health issue. This paper describes and analyses the importance placed by Australians on the role of the agencies and actors that regulate the safety and quality of food. A computer assisted telephone interviewing survey addressing aspect of food safety was administrated to a random sample of 1,109 participants across all Australian states (response rate 41.2%). Only 44.6% of participants viewed the monitoring of food safety and quality as ‘Very important’, with greatest significance placed upon personal monitoring (76.0%) and the role of the Federal government (51.1%). The media (22.5%) and local council (32.4%) were viewed as the least important agents. When data were combined to create an index of general monitoring, participants under 30; respondents in outer regional areas; and men identified food monitoring as less important; while respondents from households with 5 or more members viewed food monitoring as more important than respondents from smaller households. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Food Safety Law and Policy)
Open AccessArticle The Use of the Death Penalty for Drug Trafficking in the United States, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand: A Comparative Legal Analysis
Laws 2013, 2(2), 115-149; doi:10.3390/laws2020115
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article assesses the use of capital punishment for drug trafficking and related crimes from a comparative perspective. Domestic narcotics legislation, as well as important drug trafficking cases in four Southeast Asian nations (Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand) are examined in-depth and compared
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This article assesses the use of capital punishment for drug trafficking and related crimes from a comparative perspective. Domestic narcotics legislation, as well as important drug trafficking cases in four Southeast Asian nations (Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand) are examined in-depth and compared to the United States, which plays an important role in eradicating global drug-related problems. This article contends that the use of capital punishment is disproportionate to the gravity of drug-related offenses and that international drug control and enforcement treaties never suggested using such sanctions to deter crime. Fortunately, four Southeast Asian countries in this study, including Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand, currently realize this disproportionality and have become reluctant to carry out executions for drug trafficking; even though they continue to sentence a large number of drug-related offenders to death annually, they do not actually carry out these executions. Future research related to this topic is also recommended in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Death Penalty in the 21st Century)

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