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Laws, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2013), Pages 1-50

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Examining the Infractions Causing Higher Rates of Suspensions and Expulsions: Racial and Ethnic Considerations
Laws 2013, 2(1), 20-32; doi:10.3390/laws2010020
Received: 25 February 2013 / Revised: 6 March 2013 / Accepted: 14 March 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (59 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated school discipline infractions leading to suspensions and expulsions in Louisiana to determine patterns and trends, particularly among racial/ethnic groups. Discipline incident data rather than student discipline data were used to provide a more accurate reflection of the number of [...] Read more.
This study investigated school discipline infractions leading to suspensions and expulsions in Louisiana to determine patterns and trends, particularly among racial/ethnic groups. Discipline incident data rather than student discipline data were used to provide a more accurate reflection of the number of infractions and dispositions occurring. Findings included that black students and American Indian students had a higher percentage of out-of-school suspensions and were more likely to commit an infraction in the violent discipline infractions category, but the overwhelming majority of offenses for all groups were for non-violent and non-drug offenses. Links to juvenile delinquency and zero tolerance policies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Juvenile Delinquency)
Open AccessArticle The Imposition of the Death Penalty on Mexican Nationals in the United States and the Cultural, Legal and Political Context
Laws 2013, 2(1), 33-50; doi:10.3390/laws2010033
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 March 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (81 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews death penalty perspectives from the United States, Mexico and international law. The United States practices the death penalty on not only its citizens, but those of other nations who commit capital crimes. Mexico is a death penalty abolitionist state [...] Read more.
This paper reviews death penalty perspectives from the United States, Mexico and international law. The United States practices the death penalty on not only its citizens, but those of other nations who commit capital crimes. Mexico is a death penalty abolitionist state that takes significant issue with the United States over executing Mexican nationals. The paper analyzes the cultural, legal and political conflict between the two countries surrounding the application of the death penalty on Mexican nationals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Death Penalty in the 21st Century)

Review

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Open AccessReview Public and Private Food Safety Standards: Facilitating or Frustrating Fresh Produce Growers?
Laws 2013, 2(1), 1-19; doi:10.3390/laws2010001
Received: 14 September 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global private food safety and quality standards have undergone some major overhauls during the past two decades, and these will continue to evolve with the recent emphasis on harmonization. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) attempts to ensure that harmonize retail standards [...] Read more.
Global private food safety and quality standards have undergone some major overhauls during the past two decades, and these will continue to evolve with the recent emphasis on harmonization. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) attempts to ensure that harmonize retail standards are commendable and elegant in principle, but in practice, retailers continue to demand their own standard, whilst supporting GFSI’s benchmarking program. It is difficult to see such retailers giving up their own standards and the control they currently exert as chain captains. There is also the risk that too much harmonization will result in these standards losing their individuality and uniqueness. Amidst the struggle for private standard dominance, alternative approaches to risk management (e.g., self-assessment of risk, independent audits and risk ranking) may be the way forward, similar to how insurance risks are calculated for businesses. Furthermore, this risk-based approach could also lead to the effective implementation of co-regulation, where both public and private sector compliances are addressed together—a win-win situation. This paper considers the implications and future trends of fresh produce farming, and identifies five interventions (i.e., assurance schemes), which include the do-nothing scenario to underpinning one’s brand or label with an existing scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Food Safety Law and Policy)

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