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Metals 2018, 8(9), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8090710

Insights into Machining of a β Titanium Biomedical Alloy from Chip Microstructures

1
School of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC 4558, Australia
2
Queensland Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacturing (AMPAM), The University of Queensland, St. Lucia 4072, Australia
3
ARC Research Hub for Advanced Manufacturing of Medical Devices, St. Lucia 4072, Australia
4
School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122, Australia
5
Defence Materials Technology Centre, Victoria 3122, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys for Biomedical Implants and Devices)
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Abstract

New metastable β titanium alloys are receiving increasing attention due to their excellent biomechanical properties and machinability is critical to their uptake. In this study, machining chip microstructure has been investigated to gain an understanding of strain and temperature fields during cutting. For higher cutting speeds, ≥60 m/min, the chips have segmented morphologies characterised by a serrated appearance. High levels of strain in the primary shear zone promote formation of expanded shear band regions between segments which exhibit intensive refinement of the β phase down to grain sizes below 100 nm. The presence of both α and β phases across the expanded shear band suggests that temperatures during cutting are in the range of 400–600 °C. For the secondary shear zone, very large strains at the cutting interface result in heavily refined and approximately equiaxed nanocrystalline β grains with sizes around 20–50 nm, while further from the interface the β grains become highly elongated in the shear direction. An absence of the α phase in the region immediately adjacent to the cutting interface indicates recrystallization during cutting and temperatures in excess of the 720 °C β transus temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: machining; titanium; temperature; strain; grain refinement; ultrafine; nanocrystalline machining; titanium; temperature; strain; grain refinement; ultrafine; nanocrystalline
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kent, D.; Rahman Rashid, R.; Bermingham, M.; Attar, H.; Sun, S.; Dargusch, M. Insights into Machining of a β Titanium Biomedical Alloy from Chip Microstructures. Metals 2018, 8, 710.

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