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Metals 2017, 7(9), 383; doi:10.3390/met7090383

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Growth Restriction on Grain Size in Binary Cu Alloys

1
Department Metallurgy, Chair of Casting Research, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, A-8700 Leoben, Austria
2
Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Roseggerstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria
3
Austrian Foundry Research Institute, Parkstraße 21, A-8700 Leoben, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract

Grain refinement by elemental addition has been extensively investigated within the last decades in Al or Mg alloys. In contrast, in the Cu system, the role of solute on grain size is less investigated. In this study, the grain refinement potency of several alloying elements of the Cu system was examined. To predict grain size depending on the growth restriction factor Q, grain size modelling was performed. The results obtained by the grain size model were compared to variations in the grain size of binary Cu alloys with increasing solute content under defined cooling conditions of the TP-1 grain refiner test of the Aluminium Association©. It was found that the experimental results differed significantly from the predicted grain size values for several alloying elements. A decreasing grain size with increasing alloy concentration was observed independently of the growth restriction potency of the alloying elements. Furthermore, excessive grain coarsening was found for several solutes beyond a transition point. It is assumed that contradictory variations in grain size result from a change in the nucleating particle density of the melt. Significant decreases in grain size are supposed to be due to the in-situ formation of potent nucleation sites. Excessive grain coarsening with increasing solute content may occur due to the removal of nucleating particles. The model shows that the difference in the actual number of particles before and beyond the transition point must be in the range of several orders of magnitude. View Full-Text
Keywords: cast; metallurgy; Cu alloy; growth restriction; grain refinement cast; metallurgy; Cu alloy; growth restriction; grain refinement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cziegler, A.; Geraseva, O.; Schumacher, P. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Growth Restriction on Grain Size in Binary Cu Alloys. Metals 2017, 7, 383.

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