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Metals 2017, 7(8), 303; doi:10.3390/met7080303

High-Yield One-Pot Recovery and Characterization of Nanostructured Cobalt Oxalate from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries and Successive Re-Synthesis of LiCoO2

1
Surface Technology Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999, Korea
2
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Properties of Bulk Nanostructured Metallic Materials)
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Abstract

A complete recycling process for the cathode material of spent lithium-ion batteries is demonstrated with a simple two-step process comprised of one-pot cobalt recovery to nanostructured materials and single step synthesis of LiCoO2. For the facile and efficient recovery of cobalt, we employ malic acid as a leaching agent and oxalic acid as a precipitating agent, resulting in nanostructured cobalt oxalate. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis clearly show that cobalt species are simultaneously leached and precipitated as cobalt oxalate with a high yield of 99.28%, and this material can then be used as a reactant for the synthesis of LiCoO2 for use as a cathode material. In addition to its advantages in simplifying the process, the proposed method allows for not only enhancing the efficiency of cobalt recovery, but also enabling reaction without a reducing agent, H2O2. Through successive single-step reaction of the obtained cobalt oxalate without any purification process, LiCoO2 is also successfully synthesized. The effect of the annealing temperature during synthesis on the nanostructure and charge–discharge properties is also investigated. Half-cell tests with recycled LiCoO2 exhibit a high discharge capacity (131 mA·h·g−1) and 93% charge–discharge efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: cobalt recovery; nanostructured cobalt oxalate; spent Li-ion batteries; one-pot process; lithium cobalt oxide cobalt recovery; nanostructured cobalt oxalate; spent Li-ion batteries; one-pot process; lithium cobalt oxide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Park, Y.M.; Lim, H.; Moon, J.-H.; Lee, H.-N.; Son, S.H.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.-J. High-Yield One-Pot Recovery and Characterization of Nanostructured Cobalt Oxalate from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries and Successive Re-Synthesis of LiCoO2. Metals 2017, 7, 303.

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