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Metals 2017, 7(7), 245;

Enhanced Surface Precipitates on Ultrafine-Grained Titanium in Physiological Solution

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210007, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Properties of Bulk Nanostructured Metallic Materials)
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Enhanced cell adherence to the surface of nanocrystallized commercially pure titanium (CP–Ti) was observed by several authors. However, the understanding of the surface modification of Ti in a physiological solution due to nanocrystallized grain size has not been reached. In this work, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was applied to manufacturing ultrafine grained CP–Ti. Martensite and Widmanstatten microstructures were also obtained for comparison. The CP–Ti pieces with different microstructures were subjected to soaking tests in a simulated body fluid. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were used to characterize the surfaces. The results show the surface precipitates mainly contain Ti, O, Ca and P. The quantity of precipitates on ECAPed CP–Ti is the largest among different specimens corresponded to the observation of the thickest layer formation on ECAPed CP–Ti found by EIS. EDS results show more CaPO and less Ti are included on ECAPed Ti comparing to the deposits on other two types of specimens. Smaller numbers of precipitates and denser film are produced on the surface of the water-quenched CP–Ti. The regeneration kinetics of the CaP precipitates evaluated by Gibbs free energy is introduced to interpret the precipitating behaviors on different CP–Ti specimens. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface performance; CaP precipitates; ultrafine grain size; ECAP; EIS; XPS; CP–Ti surface performance; CaP precipitates; ultrafine grain size; ECAP; EIS; XPS; CP–Ti

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Zhou, Q.; Wang, L.; Zou, C.-H. Enhanced Surface Precipitates on Ultrafine-Grained Titanium in Physiological Solution. Metals 2017, 7, 245.

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