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Metals 2017, 7(10), 395;

The Effects of Incorporated Sn in Resynthesized Ni-Rich Cathode Materials on Their Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

Department of Energy & Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, Korea
Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 25 Saenari-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13509, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valuable Metal Recycling)
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LiNixCoyMnz (NCM), one of the most promising candidates for high-capacity cathode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs), is synthesized with various amounts of Sn. Sn-incorporated NCM from the resynthesis of NMC in leach liquor containing Sn from spent LIBs is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, particle strength tests, and electrochemical tests. Sn-incorporated NCM has a globular form, and the uniform distribution of Sn inside cathode materials is confirmed. As Sn is introduced, the (003) diffraction peak tends to shift to a smaller angle and particle breaking strength increases. It is found that Sn-incorporated cathode active materials have better cycle performance and rate capability than pristine cathode active material although the discharge capacity slightly decreases. Because there is a trade-off between decreased discharge capacity and improved cycling and rate performance, the incorporation of Sn in resynthesized NCM should be carefully designed and conducted. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion battery; cathode; recycling; Sn lithium-ion battery; cathode; recycling; Sn

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Kang, G.-H.; Lee, K.-W.; Kwon, K.; Song, J. The Effects of Incorporated Sn in Resynthesized Ni-Rich Cathode Materials on Their Lithium-Ion Battery Performance. Metals 2017, 7, 395.

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