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Metals 2016, 6(10), 232; doi:10.3390/met6100232

Erosion Behaviour of API X100 Pipeline Steel at Various Impact Angles and Particle Speeds

Center of Advanced Materials, Qatar University, 2713 Doha, Qatar
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez University, 43721 Suez, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hugo F. Lopez
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
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Erosion is the gradual removal of material due to solid particle impingement and results in a failure of pipeline materials. In this study, a series of erosion tests were carried out to investigate the influence of particle speed and impact angle on the erosion mechanism of API X100 pipeline steel. A dry erosion machine was used as the test equipment, while the particle speed ranged from 20 to 80 m/s and impact angles of 30° and 90° were used as test parameters. The eroded API X100 steel surface was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The weight loss and erosion rate were also investigated. The results showed that at a 90° impact angle, a ploughing mechanism was occurring on the tested specimens, while material removal through low-angle cutting was the dominant mechanism at lower impact angles. Embedment of alumina particles on the target steel surface, micro-cutting, and low-angle cutting were observed at low impact angles. Therefore, the scratches, cuttings, and severe ploughings observed on some failed oil and gas pipelines could be attributed to the erosion mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: API X100 steel; dry erosion; alumina particles; impact angle; particle velocity API X100 steel; dry erosion; alumina particles; impact angle; particle velocity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Okonkwo, P.C.; Shakoor, R.A.; Zagho, M.M.; Mohamed, A.M.A. Erosion Behaviour of API X100 Pipeline Steel at Various Impact Angles and Particle Speeds. Metals 2016, 6, 232.

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