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Metals 2015, 5(3), 1717-1731; doi:10.3390/met5031717

Constitutive Relationship Modeling and Characterization of Flow Behavior under Hot Working for Fe–Cr–Ni–W–Cu–Co Super-Austenitic Stainless Steel

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2
New Materials Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
3
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hugo F. Lopez
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
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Abstract

The hot deformation behavior of a Fe–22Cr–25Ni–3.5W–3Cu–1.5Co super-austenitic stainless steel was investigated using isothermal compression tests with a wide range of temperatures (1173–1373 K) and strain rates (0.1–10 s−1). The results showed that all the flow curves gradually turned to balanced stress state without notable peak stress characteristics during the entire deformation, which indicated that the dynamic recovery behavior played a main restoration mechanism in the steel. Modeling constitutive equations relating to the temperature, strain rate and flow stress were proposed to determine the materials constants and activation energy necessary for deformation. In order to give the precise predicted values of the flow behavior, the influence of strain was identified using polynomial functions. The relationship of flow stress, temperature and strain rate was represented by the Zener-Hollomon parameter including the Arrhenius term. The predicted results validated that the developed constitutive equations can describe high temperature flow behavior well. Furthermore, a modified Zener-Hollomon parameter map of the studied steel was developed to clarify the restoration mechanism based on the constitutive modeling data and microstructural observation. View Full-Text
Keywords: super-austenitic stainless steel; hot deformation behavior; constitutive equation; deformation activation energy; Zener-Hollomon parameter map super-austenitic stainless steel; hot deformation behavior; constitutive equation; deformation activation energy; Zener-Hollomon parameter map
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, L.-C.; Pan, Y.-T.; Chen, I.-G.; Lin, D.-Y. Constitutive Relationship Modeling and Characterization of Flow Behavior under Hot Working for Fe–Cr–Ni–W–Cu–Co Super-Austenitic Stainless Steel. Metals 2015, 5, 1717-1731.

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