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Metals 2015, 5(1), 131-149; doi:10.3390/met5010131

Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Hardness of Grade 91 Steel

1
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3024, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-0902, USA
3
Energy Systems Integration, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hugo F. Lopez
Received: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 21 January 2015
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Abstract

Grade 91 steel (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) is considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures of up to 650 °C. In this study, heat treatment of Grade 91 steel was performed by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures for different periods of time. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the microstructural evolution including precipitate structures and were correlated with mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-Calc™ calculations were used to support the experimental work. Furthermore, carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. View Full-Text
Keywords: modified 9Cr-1Mo steel; Grade 91 steel; heat treatment; microstructure; differential scanning calorimetry; Thermo-Calc™; precipitates modified 9Cr-1Mo steel; Grade 91 steel; heat treatment; microstructure; differential scanning calorimetry; Thermo-Calc™; precipitates
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shrestha, T.; Alsagabi, S.F.; Charit, I.; Potirniche, G.P.; Glazoff, M.V. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Hardness of Grade 91 Steel. Metals 2015, 5, 131-149.

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